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Cuscuta reflexa
GIANT DODDER

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ConvolvulaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MORNING-GLORY FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, generally twining or trailing. Leaf: 0 or alternate. Inflorescence: cyme or flowers 1 in axils; bracts subtending flowers 0 or 2. Flower: bisexual, radial; sepals (4)5, +- free, overlapping, persistent, often unequal; corolla generally showy, generally bell-shaped, +- shallowly 5-lobed, generally pleated and twisted in bud; stamens 5, epipetalous; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, each generally 2-ovuled, styles 1--2. Fruit: generally capsule. Seed: 1--4(6).
Genera In Family: 55--60 genera, 1600--1700 species: warm temperate to tropics; some cultivated for food or as ornamental (Ipomoea). Note: Monophyletic only if Cuscutaceae included, as treated here. Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet, Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. [Ipomoea nil L., misappl.], Ipomoea indica (Burm.) Merr. (including Ipomoea mutabilis Ker Gawl.), Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth, Ipomoea triloba L., all included in TJM (1993), not naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: CuscutaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: DODDER
Habit: Vine, annual (perennial herb if on perennial host), not in contact with ground, attached to, holoparasitic on host by many small, specialized roots (haustoria) along stem, generally glabrous. Stem: thread-like, +- green, yellow, orange, or +- red. Leaf: 0 or scale-like, alternate, +- 2 mm. Inflorescence: generally cyme, head- to panicle-like (flowers 1), subtended by 0--3 bracts. Flower: bisexual, radial, parts generally in 4s or 5s; calyx generally divided 2/5--3/5, persistent generally +- cream-white; corolla generally +- white, persistent (withered in fruit) or not, tube cup-shaped to cylindric, bulged or horizontally ridged below lobes or generally not, generally with scales subtending stamens, lobes alternate stamens, erect to reflexed; ovary superior, chambers 2, each 2-ovuled, styles 2, generally free, persistent, stigmas 2, generally spheric, persistent. Fruit: capsule, generally indehiscent to irregularly dehiscent (or circumscissile near base), spheric to ovoid, depressed or not, thickened and/or raised around generally inconspicuous opening between styles or not. Seed: 1--4; coat papillate when hydrated, honeycombed when dry, (rarely neither, with cells +- rectangular, in +- jigsaw-puzzle-like arrangement); embryo generally slender, 1--3-coiled.
Species In Genus: +- 180 species: cosmopolitan, especially warmer regions of western hemisphere and Polynesia. Etymology: (Aramaic, Hebrew; from the verb K-S-Y (Kaph, Shin, Yodh), to cover, from habit) Note: By persistent, withered corolla, fruit may be "capped" (corolla on top of fruit), "surrounded" (fruit at least in part visible, corolla +- loosely around fruit), or "enclosed" (fruit not visible, corolla +- tightly around fruit). Cuscuta pentagona Engelm. excluded.
eFlora Treatment Author: Mihai Costea & Saša Stefanović

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.
EXTIRPATED WEED
Inflorescence: raceme- or panicle-like with clusters of 1--3 flowers; pedicels 1--4 mm. Flower: 5--11 mm, membranous except fleshy at bases of receptacle, parts in 5s; calyx 1/4--1/3 corolla tube, cup-shaped, divided +- 2/3, not veined, not shiny, papillate, lobes ovate to widely ovate bases overlapped, margins irregular, tip rounded or obtuse; corolla tube 5--9 mm, cylindric, scales 1/3--1/2 corolla tube, oblong or ovate, rounded, uniformly densely fringed, lobes erect to reflexed, 1/3--1/4 tube, triangular-ovate, margins irregularly minute-crenate to entire, tip rounded to obtuse; filaments 0--0.1 mm, anthers included, 0.5--0.8 mm, elliptic to oblong; styles 2, fused, 0.2--0.4 mm, < ovary, stigmas; stigmas 0.9--1.2 mm, conic, awl-shaped, or elongate. Fruit: circumscissile, 5--10 mm, 4--8 mm wide, conic-spheric to sub-square, without opening between styles, not translucent, capped by corolla or not. Chromosomes: 2n=28,30,32,42,48.
Ecology: Woody pls, e.g., Hedera canariensis; Elevation: < 100 m. Bioregional Distribution: Formerly CaRH, ScV, SnGb; Distribution Outside California: Asia. Flowering Time: Aug--Oct
eFlora Treatment Author: Mihai Costea & Saša Stefanović
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Citation for this treatment: Mihai Costea & Saša Stefanović 2016. Cuscuta reflexa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=82051, accessed on May 25, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 25, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Cuscuta reflexa:
Formerly CaRH, ScV, SnGb;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.