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Cuscuta japonica var. formosana
JAPANESE DODDER

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ConvolvulaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MORNING-GLORY FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, generally twining or trailing. Leaf: 0 or alternate. Inflorescence: cyme or flowers 1 in axils; bracts subtending flowers 0 or 2. Flower: bisexual, radial; sepals (4)5, +- free, overlapping, persistent, often unequal; corolla generally showy, generally bell-shaped, +- shallowly 5-lobed, generally pleated and twisted in bud; stamens 5, epipetalous; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, each generally 2-ovuled, styles 1--2. Fruit: generally capsule. Seed: 1--4(6).
Genera In Family: 55--60 genera, 1600--1700 species: warm temperate to tropics; some cultivated for food or as ornamental (Ipomoea). Note: Monophyletic only if Cuscutaceae included, as treated here. Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet, Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. [Ipomoea nil L., misappl.], Ipomoea indica (Burm.) Merr. (including Ipomoea mutabilis Ker Gawl.), Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth, Ipomoea triloba L., all included in TJM (1993), not naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: CuscutaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: DODDER
Habit: Vine, annual (perennial herb if on perennial host), not in contact with ground, attached to, holoparasitic on host by many small, specialized roots (haustoria) along stem, generally glabrous. Stem: thread-like, +- green, yellow, orange, or +- red. Leaf: 0 or scale-like, alternate, +- 2 mm. Inflorescence: generally cyme, head- to panicle-like (flowers 1), subtended by 0--3 bracts. Flower: bisexual, radial, parts generally in 4s or 5s; calyx generally divided 2/5--3/5, persistent generally +- cream-white; corolla generally +- white, persistent (withered in fruit) or not, tube cup-shaped to cylindric, bulged or horizontally ridged below lobes or generally not, generally with scales subtending stamens, lobes alternate stamens, erect to reflexed; ovary superior, chambers 2, each 2-ovuled, styles 2, generally free, persistent, stigmas 2, generally spheric, persistent. Fruit: capsule, generally indehiscent to irregularly dehiscent (or circumscissile near base), spheric to ovoid, depressed or not, thickened and/or raised around generally inconspicuous opening between styles or not. Seed: 1--4; coat papillate when hydrated, honeycombed when dry, (rarely neither, with cells +- rectangular, in +- jigsaw-puzzle-like arrangement); embryo generally slender, 1--3-coiled.
Species In Genus: +- 180 species: cosmopolitan, especially warmer regions of western hemisphere and Polynesia. Etymology: (Aramaic, Hebrew; from the verb K-S-Y (Kaph, Shin, Yodh), to cover, from habit) Note: By persistent, withered corolla, fruit may be "capped" (corolla on top of fruit), "surrounded" (fruit at least in part visible, corolla +- loosely around fruit), or "enclosed" (fruit not visible, corolla +- tightly around fruit). Cuscuta pentagona Engelm. excluded.
eFlora Treatment Author: Mihai Costea & Saša Stefanović

Cuscuta japonica Choisy var. formosana (Hayata) Yunck.
URBAN WEED EXPECTED IN WILDLANDS
Inflorescence: spike-like with clusters of 1--3 flowers; pedicels 0.2--1 mm. Flower: 4--7 mm, membranous except fleshy at bases of receptacle, parts in 5s; calyx 1/3--1/2 corolla tube, cup-shaped, divided +- 2/3, not veined, not shiny, not papillate, lobes ovate to round, bases overlapped, margins irregular, tip rounded to obtuse; corolla tube 3--4 mm, cylindric-bell-shaped, scales 1/2--3/4 corolla tube, oblong, rounded, uniformly densely fringed, lobes erect to reflexed, 1/3 tube, triangular-ovate, margins irregularly minute-crenate to entire, tip rounded to obtuse; filaments 0--0.1 mm, anthers included, 0.7--1 mm, elliptic to oblong; styles 2, fused, 1--1.8 mm, >= ovary, stigmas; stigmas 0.5--0.7 mm, +- square. Fruit: circumscissile, 5--9 mm, 4--5 mm wide, conic-cylindric, without opening between styles, not translucent, capped by corolla.
Ecology: Woody pls, e.g., Vitis; Prunus; Elevation: < 100 m. Bioregional Distribution: ScV, CCo, and spreading; Distribution Outside California: Florida, South Carolina, Texas; native to Asia. Flowering Time: Sep--Nov Note: Evidently spreading vegetatively, no mature fruit seen; examined herbarium material belongs to Cuscuta japonica var. formosana, but Cuscuta japonica var. japonica (flower 3--4.5 mm; stigma +- conic) also may be present in California.
Synonyms: Cuscuta formosana Hayata
eFlora Treatment Author: Mihai Costea & Saša Stefanović
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Citation for this treatment: Mihai Costea & Saša Stefanović 2016. Cuscuta japonica var. formosana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=82049, accessed on May 03, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 03, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Cuscuta japonica var. formosana:
ScV, CCo, and spreading;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.