Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon
Mirabilis jalapa var. jalapa

Higher Taxonomy
Family: NyctaginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: FOUR O'CLOCK FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, [shrub, tree], glabrous or hairy. Stem: often forked. Leaf: opposite, sessile or petioled, pairs generally unequal; blade generally entire. Inflorescence: generally forked; spike, head-like cluster, or umbel, flowers rarely 1, bracts forming a calyx-like involucre or not. Flower: bisexual, generally +- radial (bilateral), sometimes cleistogamous in some genera; perianth of 1 whorl, generally petal-like, bell- to trumpet-shaped, base hardened, tightly surrounding ovary in fruit, lobes 3--5, generally notched to +- lobed; stamens 1--many; ovary superior (appearing inferior due to hardened perianth base), style 1. Fruit: achene in hardened perianth base; round to +- flat; smooth, angled, ribbed, or winged; glabrous, hairy, or glandular.
Genera In Family: 30 genera, 350 species: warm regions, especially America; some ornamental (Bougainvillea; Mirabilis, four o'clock).
eFlora Treatment Author: Andy Murdock, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: MirabilisView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: FOUR O'CLOCK
Habit: Perennial herb, subshrub. Stem: repeatedly forked, decumbent to erect. Leaf: generally petioled. Inflorescence: branches ending in umbel-like cluster or solitary flowers; bracts 5(9), +- fused (or not) into calyx-like, bell- to saucer-shaped involucre; flowers in 1 involucre 1--16, generally not blooming together; flowers cleistogamous or not. Flower: radial or +- bilateral; perianth funnel- to bell-shaped, lobes 5; stamens 3--5, generally exserted; stigma +- spheric, generally exserted. Fruit: +- round to club-shaped; ribs or angles 0, 5, 10; wings 0.
Species In Genus: +- 60 species: America, Himalayas. Etymology: (Latin: wonderful) Note: Flowers open in evening, close in morning; species intergrade, taxonomy unsettled.

Mirabilis jalapa L. var. jalapa
NATURALIZED
Stem: erect, < 1 m, hairs 0 or sparse, short. Leaf: blade 5--14 cm, ovate to cordate. Inflorescence: +- terminal, short-peduncled, umbel-like clusters; involucre bell-shaped, 1-flowered; bracts 5, 5--15 mm, 1/2--3/4 fused. Flower: perianth 30--50 mm, narrowly funnel-shaped, generally bright magenta (yellow, white, orange, or variegated). Fruit: 8--10 mm, ovoid, hairs 0 to minute; ribs 5, blunt, +- wrinkled or warty between. Chromosomes: 2n=54.
Ecology: Disturbed places with mild winters; Elevation: < 300 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP (esp SnFrB); Distribution Outside California: native to tropical America. Toxicity: TOXIC: Intestinal irritant in fruit, roots. Flowering Time: Generally May--Oct Note: Cult as ornamental with many perianth colors, some escaping, possibly hybridizing.
eFlora Treatment Author: Andy Murdock
Jepson Online Interchange

Previous taxon: Mirabilis greenei
Next taxon: Mirabilis laevis

Name Search

Contact/Feedback

Citation for this treatment: Andy Murdock 2016. Mirabilis jalapa var. jalapa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=81819, accessed on May 31, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 31, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Mirabilis jalapa var. jalapa:
CA-FP (esp SnFrB);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.