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Mirabilis jalapa var. jalapa

Higher Taxonomy
Family: NyctaginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: FOUR O'CLOCK FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, [shrub, tree], glabrous or hairy. Stem: often forked. Leaf: opposite, sessile or petioled, pairs generally unequal; blade generally entire. Inflorescence: generally forked; spike, head-like cluster, or umbel, flowers rarely 1, bracts forming a calyx-like involucre or not. Flower: bisexual, generally +- radial (bilateral), sometimes cleistogamous in some genera; perianth of 1 whorl, generally petal-like, bell- to trumpet-shaped, base hardened, tightly surrounding ovary in fruit, lobes 3--5, generally notched to +- lobed; stamens 1--many; ovary superior (appearing inferior due to hardened perianth base), style 1. Fruit: achene in hardened perianth base; round to +- flat; smooth, angled, ribbed, or winged; glabrous, hairy, or glandular.
Genera In Family: 30 genera, 350 species: warm regions, especially America; some ornamental (Bougainvillea; Mirabilis, four o'clock).
eFlora Treatment Author: Andy Murdock, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: MirabilisView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: FOUR O'CLOCK
Habit: Perennial herb, subshrub. Stem: repeatedly forked, decumbent to erect. Leaf: generally petioled. Inflorescence: branches ending in umbel-like cluster or solitary flowers; bracts 5(9), +- fused (or not) into calyx-like, bell- to saucer-shaped involucre; flowers in 1 involucre 1--16, generally not blooming together; flowers cleistogamous or not. Flower: radial or +- bilateral; perianth funnel- to bell-shaped, lobes 5; stamens 3--5, generally exserted; stigma +- spheric, generally exserted. Fruit: +- round to club-shaped; ribs or angles 0, 5, 10; wings 0.
Species In Genus: +- 60 species: America, Himalayas. Etymology: (Latin: wonderful) Note: Flowers open in evening, close in morning; species intergrade, taxonomy unsettled.

Mirabilis jalapa L. var. jalapa
NATURALIZED
Stem: erect, < 1 m, hairs 0 or sparse, short. Leaf: blade 5--14 cm, ovate to cordate. Inflorescence: +- terminal, short-peduncled, umbel-like clusters; involucre bell-shaped, 1-flowered; bracts 5, 5--15 mm, 1/2--3/4 fused. Flower: perianth 30--50 mm, narrowly funnel-shaped, generally bright magenta (yellow, white, orange, or variegated). Fruit: 8--10 mm, ovoid, hairs 0 to minute; ribs 5, blunt, +- wrinkled or warty between. Chromosomes: 2n=54.
Ecology: Disturbed places with mild winters; Elevation: < 300 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP (esp SnFrB); Distribution Outside California: native to tropical America. Toxicity: TOXIC: Intestinal irritant in fruit, roots. Flowering Time: Generally May--Oct Note: Cult as ornamental with many perianth colors, some escaping, possibly hybridizing.
eFlora Treatment Author: Andy Murdock
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Citation for this treatment: Andy Murdock 2016. Mirabilis jalapa var. jalapa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=81819, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on April 29, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Mirabilis jalapa var. jalapa:
CA-FP (esp SnFrB);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.