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Funastrum utahense
UTAH VINE MILKWEED

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ApocynaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: DOGBANE FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree, often vine; sap generally milky. Leaf: simple, alternate, opposite, subwhorled to whorled, entire; stipules 0 or small, finger-like. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, cyme, generally umbel- or raceme-like, or flowers 1--2. Flower: bisexual, radial; perianth parts, especially petals, overlapped, twisted to right or left, at least in bud; sepals generally 5, fused at base, often reflexed, persistent; petals generally 5, fused in basal +- 1/2; stamens generally 5, attached to corolla tube or throat, alternate lobes, free or fused to form filament column and anther head, filament column then generally with 5 free or fused, +- elaborate appendages abaxially, pollen +- free or removed in pairs of pollinia; nectaries 0 or near ovaries, then 2 or 5[10], or in stigmatic chambers; ovaries 2, superior or +- so, free [fused]; style tips, stigmas generally fused into massive pistil head. Fruit: 1--2 follicles, (capsule), [berry, drupe]. Seed: many, often with tuft of hairs at 1 or both ends.
Genera In Family: 200--450 genera, 3000--5000 species: all continents, especially tropics, subtropical South America, southern Africa; many ornamental (including Asclepias, Hoya, Nerium, Plumeria, Stapelia); cardiac glycosides, produced by some members formerly treated in Asclepiadaceae, used as arrow poisons, in medicine to control heart function, and by various insects for defense. Note: Asclepiadaceae ("asclepiads"), although monophyletic, included in Apocynaceae because otherwise the latter is paraphyletic. Complexity of floral structure, variation in asclepiads arguably greatest among all angiosperms. Pattern of carpel fusion (carpels free in ovule-bearing region, fused above), present +- throughout Apocynaceae (in broad sense), nearly unknown in other angiosperms. Base chromosome number generally 11; abundance of latex, generally small size of chromosomes evidently have impeded cytological investigations.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: FunastrumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb [shrub]. Stem: generally twining or trailing. Leaf: opposite, generally +- persistent; blade thread-like to narrow-lanceolate. Inflorescence: at nodes, umbel-[raceme-]like cyme. Flower: corolla lobes +- spreading to erect-incurved, ring of tissue at corolla base present or not; filament column appendages +- 0 or free from each other, fused to ring of tissue at corolla base or not, +- spheric, attached to base of filament column, without projections, hollow (possibly due to complete fusion of margins), anthers fused into anther head around and fused to pistil head, pollen in pollinia; pistil head flat or, if +- conic, 2-lobed or not; nectaries in stigmatic chambers. Fruit: generally 1, erect or pendent, narrow-fusiform to lance-ovoid, with fine longitudinal grooves [or smooth]. Chromosomes: 2n=20,22,40,44 (reports not including California plants).
Species In Genus: +- 40 species: North America, Africa to Australia. Etymology: (Greek: fleshy crown or wreath, from sac-like filament column appendages of some species) Note: Our species treated as Cynanchum, Sarcostemma in TJM (1993), both shown to be polyphyletic in previous, broader circumscriptions (Liede & Täuber 2000, 2002).

Funastrum utahense (Engelm.) Liede & Meve
NATIVE
Habit: Plant +- green, minute-hairy especially at nodes, dense-white-hairy at base. Leaf: petiole +- 0, blade 15--40 mm, thread-like, in age reflexed, persistent or not. Flower: corolla 1.5--3 mm, yellow, in age orange, ring of tissue at base 0, lobes erect-incurved, meeting above anther head, adaxially concave (hood-like); filament column appendages +- 0. Fruit: generally 1, 4--6 cm.
Ecology: Open, dry, sandy or gravelly areas; Elevation: < 1000 m. Bioregional Distribution: D; Distribution Outside California: Utah, Arizona. Flowering Time: Apr--Sep
Synonyms: Astephanus utahense Engelm.; Cynanchum utahense (Engelm.) Woodson
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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botanical illustration including Funastrum utahense

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Citation for this treatment: Thomas J. Rosatti 2016. Funastrum utahense, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=81803, accessed on December 08, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on December 08, 2016.


Funastrum utahense
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer
Funastrum utahense
click for enlargement
© 2010 Neal Kramer
Funastrum utahense
click for enlargement
© 2010 Neal Kramer
Funastrum utahense
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer
Funastrum utahense
click for enlargement
© 2012 Neal Kramer
Funastrum utahense
click for enlargement
© 2012 Neal Kramer

More photos of Funastrum utahense in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Funastrum utahense:
D;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.