Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon
Helminthotheca echioides
BRISTLY OX-TONGUE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: SUNFLOWER FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Taxa of Arida in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Leucosyris.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: HelminthothecaView Description 

Common Name: OX-TONGUE
Habit: Annual, biennial; sap milky; herbage with rigid hairs, most of which have 2--4-hooked branches at tip, often also with scattered prickles. Stem: 1, branched, leafy. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate, entire to pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: heads liguliflorous, 1 or in cyme- or panicle-like clusters; phyllaries in 2--3 overlapping series; receptacle flat, minutely hairy, epaleate. Flower: many; ligule yellow, readily withering, outer occasionally sterile. Fruit: oblong, 5--10-ribbed, covered with minute ridges, beaked; pappus of 1--2 rows of plumose or barbed bristles.
Species In Genus: 4 species: Europe. Etymology: (Greek: worm case, describing fruit)
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil & G. Ledyard Stebbins

Helminthotheca echioides (L.) Holub
NATURALIZED
Stem: coarse, stout, 3--20 dm. Leaf: 5--20 cm, oblong, entire, coarsely toothed, or shallowly lobed; proximal tapered to winged petioles; distal sessile, sometimes clasping. Inflorescence: heads 2--4 cm diam, terminal and axillary, short- to long-peduncled in leafy-bracted cyme-like clusters; involucre 15--20 mm; outer phyllaries spreading to ascending, leaf-like, widely ovate, cordate, >> and often concealing the erect, lanceolate, tapered, inner phyllaries. Fruit: 5--7.5 mm (including beak); body +- = beak, outer +- white to straw-colored or tan, adaxially +- hairy, inner +- brown, transversely roughened, glabrous; beak slender; pappus 4--7 mm, plumose, white. Chromosomes: 2n=10.
Ecology: Common. Disturbed areas; Elevation: < 1050 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, n SNF, GV, CW, SW; Distribution Outside California: North America; native to Europe. Flowering Time: All year
Synonyms: Picris echioides L.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil & G. Ledyard Stebbins
Jepson Online Interchange
Weed listed by Cal-IPC

Previous taxon: Helminthotheca
Next taxon: Hemizonella

Name Search
botanical illustration including Helminthotheca echioides

Contact/Feedback

Citation for this treatment: David J. Keil & G. Ledyard Stebbins 2016. Helminthotheca echioides, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=81752, accessed on August 27, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on August 27, 2016.


Helminthotheca echioides
click for enlargement
© 2003 Christopher L. Christie
Helminthotheca echioides
click for enlargement
© 2007 Neal Kramer
Helminthotheca echioides
click for enlargement
© 2007 Neal Kramer
Helminthotheca echioides
click for enlargement
© 2007 Neal Kramer
Helminthotheca echioides
click for enlargement
© 2015 Neal Kramer
Helminthotheca echioides
click for enlargement
© 2003 George W. Hartwell

More photos of Helminthotheca echioides in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Helminthotheca echioides:
NW, n SNF, GV, CW, SW;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.