Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera | Map
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon
Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ApocynaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree, often vine; sap generally milky. Leaf: simple, alternate, opposite, subwhorled to whorled, entire; stipules 0 or small, finger-like. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, cyme, generally umbel- or raceme-like, or flowers 1--2. Flower: bisexual, radial; perianth parts, especially petals, overlapped, twisted to right or left, at least in bud; sepals generally 5, fused at base, often reflexed, persistent; petals generally 5, fused in basal +- 1/2; stamens generally 5, attached to corolla tube or throat, alternate lobes, free or fused to form filament column and anther head, filament column then generally with 5 free or fused, +- elaborate appendages abaxially, pollen +- free or removed in pairs of pollinia; nectaries 0 or near ovaries, then 2 or 5[10], or in stigmatic chambers; ovaries 2, superior or +- so, free [fused]; style tips, stigmas generally fused into massive pistil head. Fruit: 1--2 follicles, (capsule), [berry, drupe]. Seed: many, often with tuft of hairs at 1 or both ends.
Genera In Family: 200--450 genera, 3000--5000 species: all continents, especially tropics, subtropical South America, southern Africa; many ornamental (including Asclepias, Hoya, Nerium, Plumeria, Stapelia); cardiac glycosides, produced by some members formerly treated in Asclepiadaceae, used as arrow poisons, in medicine to control heart function, and by various insects for defense. Note: Asclepiadaceae ("asclepiads"), although monophyletic, included in Apocynaceae because otherwise the latter is paraphyletic. Complexity of floral structure, variation in asclepiads arguably greatest among all angiosperms. Pattern of carpel fusion (carpels free in ovule-bearing region, fused above), present +- throughout Apocynaceae (in broad sense), nearly unknown in other angiosperms. Base chromosome number generally 11; abundance of latex, generally small size of chromosomes evidently have impeded cytological investigations.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: FunastrumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb [shrub]. Stem: generally twining or trailing. Leaf: opposite, generally +- persistent; blade thread-like to narrow-lanceolate. Inflorescence: at nodes, umbel-[raceme-]like cyme. Flower: corolla lobes +- spreading to erect-incurved, ring of tissue at corolla base present or not; filament column appendages +- 0 or free from each other, fused to ring of tissue at corolla base or not, +- spheric, attached to base of filament column, without projections, hollow (possibly due to complete fusion of margins), anthers fused into anther head around and fused to pistil head, pollen in pollinia; pistil head flat or, if +- conic, 2-lobed or not; nectaries in stigmatic chambers. Fruit: generally 1, erect or pendent, narrow-fusiform to lance-ovoid, with fine longitudinal grooves [or smooth]. Chromosomes: 2n=20,22,40,44 (reports not including California plants).
Species In Genus: +- 40 species: North America, Africa to Australia. Etymology: (Greek: fleshy crown or wreath, from sac-like filament column appendages of some species) Note: Our species treated as Cynanchum, Sarcostemma in TJM (1993), both shown to be polyphyletic in previous, broader circumscriptions (Liede & Täuber 2000, 2002).
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti

Funastrum cynanchoides (Decne.) Schltr. var. hartwegii (Vail) Krings
Habit: Plant green, generally with sparse, +- appressed hairs. Leaf: petiole 7--15 mm, blade 30--60 mm, narrow-lanceolate, base hastate (or cordate to wedge-shaped). Flower: corolla 4--8 mm, pink to purple or lobes white, each with purple streak centrally, ring of tissue at base free from filament column appendages, lobes +- spreading to +- erect. Fruit: generally 1, 7.2--11.2 cm.
Ecology: Dry, sandy, rocky arroyos or plains; Elevation: 30--1600 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo, PR, D; Distribution Outside California: to Utah, Arkansas, Texas, Mexico. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul
Synonyms: Funastrum cynanchoides subsp. heterophyllum (Engelm. ex Torr.) Kartesz, inval.; Philibertella hartwegii Vail; Philibertia heterophylla Jeps.; Sarcostemma cynanchoides Decne. subsp. hartwegii (Vail) R.W. Holm
Unabridged Note: Putative hybrids with Funastrum cynanchoides var. cynanchoides (leaf wide-lanceolate, base cordate, rarely truncate; 2n=20; southern Arizona to Arkansas) in low numbers in areas of geographic overlap, despite the fact that Funastrum cynanchoides var. cynanchoides begins to flower nearly 2 months later than Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti
Jepson Online Interchange

Previous taxon: Funastrum crispum
Next taxon: Funastrum hirtellum

Name Search
botanical illustration including Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii


Citation for this treatment: Thomas J. Rosatti 2017. Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 22, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 22, 2017.

Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii
click for enlargement
© 2010 Steve Matson
Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling
Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii
click for enlargement
© 2011 Neal Kramer
Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse

More photos of Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii:
SCo, PR, D;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.