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Cylindropuntia echinocarpa
SILVER or GOLDEN CHOLLA

Higher Taxonomy
Family: CactaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CACTUS FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, shrub, tree, generally fleshy. Stem: cylindric to spheric, or flat; surface smooth, tubercled, or ribbed (grooved); nodal areoles bearing flowers. Leaf: generally 0 or early-deciduous, flat to +- cylindric. Spines: areoles generally with central, radial spines, occasionally with glochids. Flower: generally 1 per areole, bisexual [unisexual], sessile, radial [bilateral]; perianth parts generally many [5], scale-like to petal-like; stamens many; ovary inferior [superior], style 1, stigma lobes generally several [many]. Fruit: dry to fleshy or juicy, indehiscent to variously dehiscent, spiny, scaly, or naked; tubercled or smooth. Seed: generally many, occasionally 0--few.
Genera In Family: +- 125 genera, +- 1800 species: America (especially deserts), Africa; many cultivated, some edible. Note: Spines smaller, fewer (0) in shade forms; yellow spines blacken in age. Introduced species increasingly escape cultivation. Hybridization common in some genera. Taxa of Escobaria in TJM (1993) moved to Coryphantha.
eFlora Treatment Author: Bruce D. Parfitt, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce D. Parfitt, Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: CylindropuntiaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CHOLLA
Habit: Shrub or small tree, erect to decumbent, many-branched. Stem: regularly segmented, segments generally < 50 cm, < 5 cm diam, cylindric, fleshy, glabrous; ribs generally 0; tubercles generally elongate. Leaf: conic to cylindric, deciduous. Spines: 1--many per areole, < 2 mm diam, generally needle-shaped, smooth, straight, tip smooth or barbed, epidermis separating as a papery sheath; central spines generally not distinct from radial spines; glochids generally numerous in each areole. Flower: lateral to terminal, from distal portion of areole, 1.8--8 cm diam; perianth yellow, yellow-green, orange-yellow, to bronze, pink, or red; ovary glabrous, spines 0--many, glochids many in each areole, scales 0. Fruit: indehiscent; spheric or cylindric to obconic, dry or fleshy to leathery in age, green to dark yellow, glabrous, spiny or spines 0. Seed: 1.9--7 mm, flattened to +- spheric, surface smooth to angular, within an aril, bony and +- white when dry.
Species In Genus: 36 species: America. Etymology: (Cylindric Opuntia) Note: Hybridization common. Young buds of some species used for food, many species for ornament. Cylindropuntia chuckwallensis newly described, added as native.
eFlora Treatment Author: Marc Baker, Bruce D. Parfitt & Jon Rebman

Cylindropuntia echinocarpa (Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow) F.M. Knuth
NATIVE
Habit: Plant < 3 m. Stem: trunks 1 to few, main branches spreading to curving upwards, few, generally short; terminal segments generally < 10 cm, 2--3 cm diam, firmly attached; tubercle 6--15 mm, < 8 mm high. Spines: 9--20, < 4 cm, pale gray to translucent yellow, sheath generally same color. Flower: inner perianth < 2.5 cm, yellow-green; filaments green to pale yellow. Fruit: dry, proximal tubercles +- = distal; base obtuse; spines dense distally. Seed: < 6 mm, generally fertile. Chromosomes: 2n=22.
Ecology: Creosote-bush/white bur-sage, blackbush, saltbush, other desert and GB scrub; Elevation: 300--1600 m. Bioregional Distribution: s SNF, SNE, D; Distribution Outside California: to Utah, Arizona, northern Baja California. Flowering Time: Mar--Jun
Synonyms: Opuntia echinocarpa Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow; Cylindropuntia wigginsii (L.D. Benson) H. Rob.; Cylindropuntia ×wigginsii (L.D. Benson) H. Rob.; Opuntia wigginsii L.D. Benson; Opuntia ×wigginsii L.D. Benson
Unabridged Note: Although this sp. hybridizes with most co-occurring Cylindropuntia species, only a single sterile individual of putative Cylindropuntia echinocarpa × Cylindropuntia ramosissima is known.
eFlora Treatment Author: Marc Baker, Bruce D. Parfitt & Jon Rebman
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Cylindropuntia chuckwallensis
Next taxon: Cylindropuntia fosbergii

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botanical illustration including Cylindropuntia echinocarpa

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Citation for this treatment: Marc Baker, Bruce D. Parfitt & Jon Rebman 2016. Cylindropuntia echinocarpa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=80395, accessed on May 26, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 26, 2016.


Cylindropuntia echinocarpa
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© 2012 Neal Kramer
Cylindropuntia echinocarpa
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© 1999 California Academy of Sciences
Cylindropuntia echinocarpa
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© 2009 Gary A. Monroe
Cylindropuntia echinocarpa
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© 2009 Steve Matson
Cylindropuntia echinocarpa
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© 2010 Neal Kramer
Cylindropuntia echinocarpa
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© 2005 James M. Andre

More photos of Cylindropuntia echinocarpa in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Cylindropuntia echinocarpa:
s SNF, SNE, D;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.