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Vascular Plants of California
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Mirabilis laevis var. retrorsa


Higher Taxonomy
Family: NyctaginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: FOUR O'CLOCK FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, [shrub, tree], glabrous or hairy. Stem: often forked. Leaf: opposite, sessile or petioled, pairs generally unequal; blade generally entire. Inflorescence: generally forked; spike, head-like cluster, or umbel, flowers rarely 1, bracts forming a calyx-like involucre or not. Flower: bisexual, generally +- radial (bilateral), sometimes cleistogamous in some genera; perianth of 1 whorl, generally petal-like, bell- to trumpet-shaped, base hardened, tightly surrounding ovary in fruit, lobes 3--5, generally notched to +- lobed; stamens 1--many; ovary superior (appearing inferior due to hardened perianth base), style 1. Fruit: achene in hardened perianth base; round to +- flat; smooth, angled, ribbed, or winged; glabrous, hairy, or glandular.
Genera In Family: 30 genera, 350 species: warm regions, especially America; some ornamental (Bougainvillea; Mirabilis, four o'clock).
eFlora Treatment Author: Andy Murdock, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: MirabilisView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: FOUR O'CLOCK
Habit: Perennial herb, subshrub. Stem: repeatedly forked, decumbent to erect. Leaf: generally petioled. Inflorescence: branches ending in umbel-like cluster or solitary flowers; bracts 5(9), +- fused (or not) into calyx-like, bell- to saucer-shaped involucre; flowers in 1 involucre 1--16, generally not blooming together; flowers cleistogamous or not. Flower: radial or +- bilateral; perianth funnel- to bell-shaped, lobes 5; stamens 3--5, generally exserted; stigma +- spheric, generally exserted. Fruit: +- round to club-shaped; ribs or angles 0, 5, 10; wings 0.
Species In Genus: +- 60 species: America, Himalayas. Etymology: (Latin: wonderful) Note: Flowers open in evening, close in morning; species intergrade, taxonomy unsettled.
Reference: Spellenberg 2003 FNANM 4:40--57
Species: Mirabilis laevisView Description 

Stem: ascending to erect, < 8 dm, broadly forked, clambering or forming clumps, basally woody, [glabrous] scabrous, or glandular-hairy. Leaf: fleshy, hairs 0 or various, often glandular. Inflorescence: involucres in terminal, umbel-like cluster or generally 1 in axils, 3--7 mm, 1(2)-flowered, bracts 5, lobes < tube, +- ovate. Flower: perianth white to magenta, 5--14 mm. Fruit: ovoid, generally dark colored, often spotted, with 10 obscure vertical lines.
Note: Mirabilis laevis var. laevis restricted to Mexico.
Mirabilis laevis var. retrorsa (A. Heller) Jeps.
NATIVE
Stem: (and leaf) with short, reflexed hairs, generally also +- glandular-hairy; stems with inflorescences generally branched throughout. Leaf: blade 0.5--3.5 cm. Inflorescence: involucre bell-shaped, 5--6 mm. Flower: perianth 8--12 mm, widely funnel-shaped, white (pale pink). Fruit: +- spheric, generally with 5--10 visible lines.
Ecology: Rocky places; Elevation: < 2300 m. Bioregional Distribution: W&I, D; Distribution Outside California: Oregon; to Utah, Arizona, northwestern Mexico. Flowering Time: Feb--Jun
Synonyms: Mirabilis retrorsa A. Heller; Mirabilis bigelovii A. Gray var. retrorsa (A. Heller) Munz
Jepson eFlora Author: Andy Murdock
Reference: Spellenberg 2003 FNANM 4:40--57
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Citation for this treatment: Andy Murdock 2012, Mirabilis laevis var. retrorsa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=80352, accessed on June 18, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on June 18, 2019.

Mirabilis laevis var. retrorsa
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© 2013 Steve Matson
Mirabilis laevis var. retrorsa
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© 2017 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Mirabilis laevis var. retrorsa
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© 2010 Thomas Stoughton
Mirabilis laevis var. retrorsa
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Mirabilis laevis var. retrorsa
click for enlargement
© 2010 Thomas Stoughton
Mirabilis laevis var. retrorsa
click for enlargement
© 2014 Keir Morse

More photos of Mirabilis laevis var. retrorsa in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Mirabilis laevis var. retrorsa:
W&I, D
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.