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Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia

Higher Taxonomy
Family: NyctaginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, [shrub, tree], glabrous or hairy. Stem: often forked. Leaf: opposite, sessile or petioled, pairs generally unequal; blade generally entire. Inflorescence: generally forked; spike, head-like cluster, or umbel, flowers rarely 1, bracts forming a calyx-like involucre or not. Flower: bisexual, generally +- radial (bilateral), sometimes cleistogamous in some genera; perianth of 1 whorl, generally petal-like, bell- to trumpet-shaped, base hardened, tightly surrounding ovary in fruit, lobes 3--5, generally notched to +- lobed; stamens 1--many; ovary superior (appearing inferior due to hardened perianth base), style 1. Fruit: achene in hardened perianth base; round to +- flat; smooth, angled, ribbed, or winged; glabrous, hairy, or glandular.
Genera In Family: 30 genera, 350 species: warm regions, especially America; some ornamental (Bougainvillea; Mirabilis, four o'clock).
eFlora Treatment Author: Andy Murdock, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: MirabilisView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: FOUR O'CLOCK
Habit: Perennial herb, subshrub. Stem: repeatedly forked, decumbent to erect. Leaf: generally petioled. Inflorescence: branches ending in umbel-like cluster or solitary flowers; bracts 5(9), +- fused (or not) into calyx-like, bell- to saucer-shaped involucre; flowers in 1 involucre 1--16, generally not blooming together; flowers cleistogamous or not. Flower: radial or +- bilateral; perianth funnel- to bell-shaped, lobes 5; stamens 3--5, generally exserted; stigma +- spheric, generally exserted. Fruit: +- round to club-shaped; ribs or angles 0, 5, 10; wings 0.
Species In Genus: +- 60 species: America, Himalayas. Etymology: (Latin: wonderful) Note: Flowers open in evening, close in morning; species intergrade, taxonomy unsettled.
Species: Mirabilis laevisView Description 

Stem: ascending to erect, < 8 dm, broadly forked, clambering or forming clumps, basally woody, [glabrous] scabrous, or glandular-hairy. Leaf: fleshy, hairs 0 or various, often glandular. Inflorescence: involucres in terminal, umbel-like cluster or generally 1 in axils, 3--7 mm, 1(2)-flowered, bracts 5, lobes < tube, +- ovate. Flower: perianth white to magenta, 5--14 mm. Fruit: ovoid, generally dark colored, often spotted, with 10 obscure vertical lines.
Note: Mirabilis laevis var. laevis restricted to Mexico.

Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia (Choisy) Spellenb.
Stem: trailing to ascending, +- woody, +- gray in age, scabrous or +- glandular-hairy towards tips; stems with inflorescences generally unbranched above. Leaf: blade 1--4.5 cm, ovate, puberulent or glandular-hairy (hairs of youngest leaves with conic base). Inflorescence: involucre bell-shaped, 5--8 mm. Flower: perianth 5--14 mm, broadly funnel-shaped, pink to purple-red (white). Fruit: +- 5 mm, ovoid, generally lightly dotted or wrinkled (smooth), glabrous.
Ecology: Grassy areas, chaparral, dunes, dry rocky areas, washes; Elevation: < 2500 m. Bioregional Distribution: c&s SNF, Teh, CCo, SCoR, SW, W&I, w edge D; Distribution Outside California: Baja California. Flowering Time: Mostly Dec--Jun
Synonyms: Mirabilis californica A. Gray; Mirabilis californica var. californica; Mirabilis californica var. cedrosensis (Standl.) J.F. Macbr.; Mirabilis californica var. cordifolia (Dunkle) Dunkle, illeg.?
eFlora Treatment Author: Andy Murdock
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botanical illustration including Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia


Citation for this treatment: Andy Murdock 2016. Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia
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© 2003 Michael Charters
Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia
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© 2014 Steve Matson
Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia
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© 1996 Christopher L. Christie
Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia
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© 2015 Aaron Schusteff
Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia
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© 2016 Aaron E. Sims and CNPS

More photos of Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia:
c&s SNF, Teh, CCo, SCoR, SW, W&I, w edge D;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.