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Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia

Higher Taxonomy
Family: NyctaginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, [shrub, tree], glabrous or hairy. Stem: often forked. Leaf: opposite, sessile or petioled, pairs generally unequal; blade generally entire. Inflorescence: generally forked; spike, head-like cluster, or umbel, flowers rarely 1, bracts forming a calyx-like involucre or not. Flower: bisexual, generally +- radial (bilateral), sometimes cleistogamous in some genera; perianth of 1 whorl, generally petal-like, bell- to trumpet-shaped, base hardened, tightly surrounding ovary in fruit, lobes 3--5, generally notched to +- lobed; stamens 1--many; ovary superior (appearing inferior due to hardened perianth base), style 1. Fruit: achene in hardened perianth base; round to +- flat; smooth, angled, ribbed, or winged; glabrous, hairy, or glandular.
Genera In Family: 30 genera, 350 species: warm regions, especially America; some ornamental (Bougainvillea; Mirabilis, four o'clock).
eFlora Treatment Author: Andy Murdock, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: MirabilisView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: FOUR O'CLOCK
Habit: Perennial herb, subshrub. Stem: repeatedly forked, decumbent to erect. Leaf: generally petioled. Inflorescence: branches ending in umbel-like cluster or solitary flowers; bracts 5(9), +- fused (or not) into calyx-like, bell- to saucer-shaped involucre; flowers in 1 involucre 1--16, generally not blooming together; flowers cleistogamous or not. Flower: radial or +- bilateral; perianth funnel- to bell-shaped, lobes 5; stamens 3--5, generally exserted; stigma +- spheric, generally exserted. Fruit: +- round to club-shaped; ribs or angles 0, 5, 10; wings 0.
Species In Genus: +- 60 species: America, Himalayas. Etymology: (Latin: wonderful) Note: Flowers open in evening, close in morning; species intergrade, taxonomy unsettled.
Reference: Spellenberg 2003 FNANM 4:40--57
Species: Mirabilis laevisView Description 

Stem: ascending to erect, < 8 dm, broadly forked, clambering or forming clumps, basally woody, [glabrous] scabrous, or glandular-hairy. Leaf: fleshy, hairs 0 or various, often glandular. Inflorescence: involucres in terminal, umbel-like cluster or generally 1 in axils, 3--7 mm, 1(2)-flowered, bracts 5, lobes < tube, +- ovate. Flower: perianth white to magenta, 5--14 mm. Fruit: ovoid, generally dark colored, often spotted, with 10 obscure vertical lines.
Note: Mirabilis laevis var. laevis restricted to Mexico.

Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia (Choisy) Spellenb.
Stem: trailing to ascending, +- woody, +- gray in age, scabrous or +- glandular-hairy towards tips; stems with inflorescences generally unbranched above. Leaf: blade 1--4.5 cm, ovate, puberulent or glandular-hairy (hairs of youngest leaves with conic base). Inflorescence: involucre bell-shaped, 5--8 mm. Flower: perianth 5--14 mm, broadly funnel-shaped, pink to purple-red (white). Fruit: +- 5 mm, ovoid, generally lightly dotted or wrinkled (smooth), glabrous.
Ecology: Grassy areas, chaparral, dunes, dry rocky areas, washes; Elevation: < 2500 m. Bioregional Distribution: c&s SNF, Teh, CCo, SCoR, SW, W&I, w edge D; Distribution Outside California: Baja California. Flowering Time: Mostly Dec--Jun
Synonyms: Mirabilis californica A. Gray; Mirabilis californica var. californica; Mirabilis californica var. cedrosensis (Standl.) J.F. Macbr.; Mirabilis californica var. cordifolia (Dunkle) Dunkle, illeg.?;
Jepson eFlora Author: Andy Murdock
Reference: Spellenberg 2003 FNANM 4:40--57
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botanical illustration including Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia


Citation for this treatment: Andy Murdock 2012, Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on November 15, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on November 15, 2018.

Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia
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© 2012 Neal Kramer
Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia
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© 2016 Aaron E. Sims and CNPS
Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia
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© 2014 Steve Matson
Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia
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© 2010 Thomas Stoughton
Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia
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© 2014 Keir Morse
Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia
click for enlargement
© 2014 Keir Morse

More photos of Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia:
c&s SNF, Teh, CCo, SCoR, SW, W&I, w edge D;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.