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Juncus effusus subsp. austrocalifornicus
SONORAN or BAJA RUSH

Higher Taxonomy
Family: JuncaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: RUSH FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb generally from rhizomes. Stem: round or flat. Leaf: generally basal; sheath margins fused, or overlapping and generally with 2 ear-like extensions at blade junction; blade round, flat, or vestigial, glabrous or margin hairy. Inflorescence: head-like clusters or flowers 1, variously arranged; bracts subtending inflorescence 2, generally leaf-like; bracts subtending inflorescence branches 1--2, reduced; bractlets subtending flowers generally 1--2, generally translucent. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals and petals similar, persistent, scale-like, green to brown or +- purple-black; stamens generally 3 or 6, anthers linear, persistent; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 1 or 3, placentas 1 and basal or 3 and axile or parietal, stigmas generally > style. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal. Seed: 3--many, generally with white appendages on 1 or both ends.
Genera In Family: 7 genera, 440 species: temperate, arctic, and tropical mountains. Note: Flowers late spring to early fall.
eFlora Treatment Author: Peter F. Zika, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: JuncusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: RUSH
Habit: Rhizome 0 or generally with scale-like leaves. Stem: generally cylindric or flat. Leaf: blade well developed and cylindric or flat, occasionally closely resembling stem, or reduced to small point; crosswalls generally present; appendages generally present at blade-sheath junction. Inflorescence: generally terminal, appearing lateral when pushed aside by inflorescence bract; bractlets 0--2. Flower: sepals, petals similar; stamens generally 3 or 6(2); pistil 1, ovary chambers 1--3, placentas axile or parietal, stigmas generally 3(2). Seed: many.
Species In Genus: 315 species: worldwide, especially northern hemisphere. Etymology: (Latin: to join or bind, from use of stems) Note: All species with leaf crosswalls may have leaves, stems swollen, deformed by sucking insects. Fruiting time given instead of flowering time. Plants included in TJM2 as Juncus brachyphyllus now treated in California as a new species, Juncus trilocularis (Zika 2012 Rhodora 114:309--329); Juncus bulbosus, Juncus dichotomus, and Juncus elliottii, only noted as naturalized in TJM2, now fully treated.
Species: Juncus effususView Description 

Common Name: SOFT or LAMP RUSH
Habit: Perennial herb, cespitose, 60--155 cm; rhizome stout. Stem: 2--5 mm wide at base, above sheath; when fresh, upper stem smooth, shiny. Leaf: basal; blades 0. Inflorescence: appearing lateral, open; lowest bract cylindric, resembling stem, >> inflorescence; flowers generally many, single; bractlets 2 per flower. Flower: perianth parts 1.8--4.2 mm, +- equal, generally pale brown; stamens 3, filaments <= to > anthers. Fruit: +- = perianth, obovoid, +- truncate. Seed: 0.5 mm; appendage 1, minute. Chromosomes: 2n=40.
Note: Native and naturalized.

Juncus effusus subsp. austrocalifornicus Zika
NATIVE
Stem: 64--155 cm, fertile stem generally 2--3.5 mm wide above sheath, 14--22 ridges per side, fresh upper stem shiny, smooth, pith solid. Leaf: sheath 5--17 cm, base dark brown, papillate, upper 1/2 green to pale brown, veins +- abruptly tapered to broadly asymmetrical winged tip, margins thin, pale or darkened; Inflorescence: 2--8 cm, open to dense; bract 5--23 cm, > inflorescence. Flower: perianth 2.2--2.8 mm, acuminate, pale, spreading or pressed to fruit; filaments <= anthers. Fruit: 1.7--1.9 mm, shiny, elliptic-oblong, truncate, partitions straight, chambers 3. Seed: 0.4--0.6 mm, 0.2--0.25 mm wide, asymmetrical, netted, vertical lines more obvious than horizontal.
Ecology: Riparian, springs, salt marsh edge; Elevation: < 2400 m. Bioregional Distribution: SW (exc ChI), DSon; Distribution Outside California: to Arizona, northern Baja California. Fruiting Time: Aug--Oct
Synonyms: Juncus effusus subsp. austrocalifornicus Lint ex Zika; Juncus effusus var. australis, ined.
Unabridged Note: Range limit in Mexico uncertain. Expanded author citation: Juncus effusus subsp. austrocalifornicus Lint ex Zika
eFlora Treatment Author: Peter F. Zika
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botanical illustration including Juncus effusus subsp. austrocalifornicus

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Citation for this treatment: Peter F. Zika 2016. Juncus effusus subsp. austrocalifornicus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=80232, accessed on April 30, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on April 30, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Juncus effusus subsp. austrocalifornicus:
SW (exc ChI), DSon;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.