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Palafoxia arida var. gigantea
GIANT SPANISH-NEEDLE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: SUNFLOWER FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Taxa of Arida in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Leucosyris.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: PalafoxiaView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, subshrub. Stem: ascending or erect. Leaf: simple, proximal opposite, distal alternate, generally petioled; blade entire. Inflorescence: heads discoid or radiant [radiate], in +- flat-topped clusters; involucre +- cylindric or +- obconic; phyllaries in 2--3 +- equal series; receptacle flat, epaleate. Ray Flower: 0[13]; corolla white to +- purple. Disk Flower: 9--40(90); corolla radial or +- bilateral, white to +- purple, lobes narrowly triangular; anther tip triangular; style branches linear. Fruit: 4-angled, narrowly obpyramidal; pappus of 3--10 scales, sometimes 0 in outer fruit.
Species In Genus: 12 species: southwestern United States, Mexico. Etymology: (J. Palafox, Spanish general, 1776--1847)
Species: Palafoxia aridaView Description 

Habit: Annual (or short-lived perennial herb). Stem: generally erect, much-branched. Leaf: 2--12 cm; petioles 5--15 mm; blade linear to lance-linear. Inflorescence: heads discoid (+- radiant); phyllaries linear, scabrous to densely glandular. Flower: 9--40; corolla white to pink; anthers pink to purple. Fruit: 10--15 mm, +- strigose; pappus of outer fruit 0 or of 3--8 scales of varying length; pappus of inner fruit of 4 scales 8--12 mm, and 4 shorter scales. Chromosomes: 2n=24.


Palafoxia arida var. gigantea (M.E. Jones) B.L. Turner & M.I. Morris
NATIVE
Stem: +- glabrous. Leaf: 6--12 cm, generally +- glabrous. Inflorescence: heads generally 10--20; involucre 10--20 mm diam, obconic; phyllaries 16--25 mm. Flower: 18--40; corolla 10--13 mm, radial. Fruit: 12--16 mm.
Ecology: Sand dunes; Elevation: < 100 m. Bioregional Distribution: DSon (se Imperial Co.); Distribution Outside California: southwestern Arizona; Sonora. Flowering Time: Mar--May
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil
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Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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Citation for this treatment: David J. Keil 2016. Palafoxia arida var. gigantea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=8001, accessed on December 10, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on December 10, 2016.


Palafoxia arida var. gigantea
click for enlargement
© 2014 Keir Morse
Palafoxia arida var. gigantea
click for enlargement
© 2014 Keir Morse
Palafoxia arida var. gigantea
click for enlargement
© 2014 Keir Morse
Palafoxia arida var. gigantea
click for enlargement
© 2014 Keir Morse
Palafoxia arida var. gigantea
click for enlargement
© 2014 Keir Morse
Palafoxia arida var. gigantea
click for enlargement
© 2014 Keir Morse

More photos of Palafoxia arida var. gigantea in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Palafoxia arida var. gigantea:
DSon (se Imperial Co.);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.