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Juncus laccatus

Higher Taxonomy
Family: JuncaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: RUSH FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb generally from rhizomes. Stem: round or flat. Leaf: generally basal; sheath margins fused, or overlapping and generally with 2 ear-like extensions at blade junction; blade round, flat, or vestigial, glabrous or margin hairy. Inflorescence: head-like clusters or flowers 1, variously arranged; bracts subtending inflorescence 2, generally leaf-like; bracts subtending inflorescence branches 1--2, reduced; bractlets subtending flowers generally 1--2, generally translucent. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals and petals similar, persistent, scale-like, green to brown or +- purple-black; stamens generally 3 or 6, anthers linear, persistent; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 1 or 3, placentas 1 and basal or 3 and axile or parietal, stigmas generally > style. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal. Seed: 3--many, generally with white appendages on 1 or both ends.
Genera In Family: 7 genera, 440 species: temperate, arctic, and tropical mountains. Note: Flowers late spring to early fall.
eFlora Treatment Author: Peter F. Zika, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: JuncusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: RUSH
Habit: Rhizome 0 or generally with scale-like leaves. Stem: generally cylindric or flat. Leaf: blade well developed and cylindric or flat, occasionally closely resembling stem, or reduced to small point; crosswalls generally present; appendages generally present at blade-sheath junction. Inflorescence: generally terminal, appearing lateral when pushed aside by inflorescence bract; bractlets 0--2. Flower: sepals, petals similar; stamens generally 3 or 6(2); pistil 1, ovary chambers 1--3, placentas axile or parietal, stigmas generally 3(2). Seed: many.
Species In Genus: 315 species: worldwide, especially northern hemisphere. Etymology: (Latin: to join or bind, from use of stems) Note: All species with leaf crosswalls may have leaves, stems swollen, deformed by sucking insects. Fruiting time given instead of flowering time. Plants included in TJM2 as Juncus brachyphyllus now treated in California as a new species, Juncus trilocularis (Zika 2012 Rhodora 114:309--329); Juncus bulbosus, Juncus dichotomus, and Juncus elliottii, only noted as naturalized in TJM2, now fully treated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Peter F. Zika
Reference: [Ertter 1986 Mem New York Bot Gard 39:1--90]

Juncus laccatus Zika
Habit: Perennial herb, cespitose. Stem: 45--105 cm, 1.3--2.1 mm wide above sheath, 7--11 broad ridges per side, upper stem shiny and smooth when fresh, pith solid. Leaf: sheath 3--15 cm, medium to generally dark brown or +- black, shiny, +- smooth, veins generally obscure, tip truncate, thick, generally flat, margins dark, overlapping halfway, generally split to base in age. Inflorescence: 1--6 cm, open or generally dense; bract 5--12 cm, > inflorescence. Flower: perianth 1.9--2.8 mm, acuminate, dark brown stripes flanking midvein, >= fruit; stamens 3, filaments generally <= anthers. Fruit: 1.8--2.4 mm, oblong, truncate, shiny yellow-brown, inner partitions straight, chambers 3. Seed: 0.3--0.5 mm, 0.2--0.28 mm wide, asymmetrical, abruptly short-pointed, netted.
Ecology: Peatland, wet meadows, shores, swales; Elevation: < 2100 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW (exc NCoRI), CaRH, n&c SNH; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Arizona. Fruiting Time: Jun--Sep
Synonyms: Juncus effusus L. var. gracilis Hook.;
Jepson eFlora Author: Peter F. Zika
Reference: [Ertter 1986 Mem New York Bot Gard 39:1--90]
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botanical illustration including Juncus laccatus


Citation for this treatment: Peter F. Zika 2015, Juncus laccatus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 3,, accessed on December 09, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 09, 2018.

Juncus laccatus
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© 2004 Steve Matson
Juncus laccatus
click for enlargement
© 2007 Steve Matson
Juncus laccatus
click for enlargement
© 2003 Steve Matson
Juncus laccatus
click for enlargement
© 2003 Steve Matson
Juncus laccatus
click for enlargement
© 2004 Steve Matson
Juncus laccatus
click for enlargement
© 2004 Steve Matson

More photos of Juncus laccatus in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Juncus laccatus:
NW (exc NCoRI), CaRH, n&c SNH;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.