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Viola adunca subsp. adunca

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).

Viola adunca Sm. subsp. adunca
Habit: Perennial herb 3.5--30(35) cm, glabrous to puberulent. Stem: prostrate to erect, generally many, often woody at base in age, generally some much elongated by end of season, clustered on 1--several caudices generally at ground level, from woody rhizome. Leaf: simple; basal 1--4 per caudex, glabrous to hairy, petiole 0.5--13.5 cm, blade 0.5--6.6 cm, 3.6--4.8 cm wide, ovate to ovate-triangular, entire to crenate, base cordate, truncate, or long-tapered, tip acute to obtuse; cauline petiole 0.5--12.1 cm, blade 0.6--4.2 cm, 0.4--4. 4 cm wide, +- like basal. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 1--10.3 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, not ciliate; petals light to deep violet, lower 3 white basally, veined dark violet, lateral 2 bearded with cylindric hairs, lowest 7--21 mm, spur 3--7 mm, generally elongate, conspicuous, straight or tip hooked. Fruit: 6--11 mm, short-ovoid, glabrous. Seed: 1.5--2 mm, dark brown to olive-black. Chromosomes: 2n=20,30,40.
Ecology: Vernally moist meadows, damp streambanks, meadow edges in conifer forest, generally shade; Elevation: < 3570 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP (gen mtns; to 0 m NCo), Wrn; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, Yukon Territory, eastern North America, New Mexico. Flowering Time: Apr--Aug Note: Polymorphic, with many named variants. Often confused with Viola nephrophylla (stem 0). Larval food plant for 3 federally endangered or threatened butterflies.
Synonyms: Viola adunca subsp. ashtoniae M.S. Baker; Viola adunca var. adunca; Viola adunca var. cascadensis C.L. Hitchc.; Viola adunca var. kirkii V.G. Duran; Viola adunca subsp. oxyceras (S. Watson) Piper; Viola adunca var. uncinulata (Greene) Applegate; Viola cascadensis M.S. Baker; Viola uncinulata Greene
Unabridged Note: Listed as the larval food plant for federally endangered Behrens' silverspot butterfly (Speyeria zerene behrensii) in Mendocino Co., Myrtle's silverspot butterfly (Speyeria zerene myrtleae) in Marin and Sonoma cos., and the federal threatened Oregon silverspot butterfly (Speyeria zerene hippolyta) in Del Norte Co.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
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Previous taxon: Viola
Next taxon: Viola arvensis

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botanical illustration including Viola adunca subsp. adunca


Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2017. Viola adunca subsp. adunca, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 28, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 28, 2017.

Geographic subdivisions for Viola adunca subsp. adunca:
CA-FP (gen mtns; to 0 m NCo), Wrn;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.