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|Family: Violaceae||View Description||Dichotomous Key|
|Genus: Viola||View Description||Dichotomous Key|
|Species:||View Description||Dichotomous Key|
Viola adunca Sm. subsp. adunca
Habit: Perennial herb 3.5--30(35) cm, glabrous to puberulent. Stem: prostrate to erect, generally many, often woody at base in age, generally some much elongated by end of season, clustered on 1--several caudices generally at ground level, from woody rhizome. Leaf: simple; basal 1--4 per caudex, glabrous to hairy, petiole 0.5--13.5 cm, blade 0.5--6.6 cm, 3.6--4.8 cm wide, ovate to ovate-triangular, entire to crenate, base cordate, truncate, or long-tapered, tip acute to obtuse; cauline petiole 0.5--12.1 cm, blade 0.6--4.2 cm, 0.4--4. 4 cm wide, +- like basal. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 1--10.3 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, not ciliate; petals light to deep violet, lower 3 white basally, veined dark violet, lateral 2 bearded with cylindric hairs, lowest 7--21 mm, spur 3--7 mm, generally elongate, conspicuous, straight or tip hooked. Fruit: 6--11 mm, short-ovoid, glabrous. Seed: 1.5--2 mm, dark brown to olive-black. Chromosomes: 2n=20,30,40.
Ecology: Vernally moist meadows, damp streambanks, meadow edges in conifer forest, generally shade; Elevation: < 3570 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP (gen mtns; to 0 m NCo), Wrn; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, Yukon Territory, eastern North America, New Mexico. Flowering Time: Apr--Aug Note: Polymorphic, with many named variants. Often confused with Viola nephrophylla (stem 0). Larval food plant for 3 federally endangered or threatened butterflies.
Synonyms: Viola adunca subsp. ashtoniae M.S. Baker; Viola adunca var. adunca; Viola adunca var. cascadensis C.L. Hitchc.; Viola adunca var. kirkii V.G. Duran; Viola adunca subsp. oxyceras (S. Watson) Piper; Viola adunca var. uncinulata (Greene) Applegate; Viola cascadensis M.S. Baker; Viola uncinulata Greene
Unabridged Note: Listed as the larval food plant for federally endangered Behrens' silverspot butterfly (Speyeria zerene behrensii) in Mendocino Co., Myrtle's silverspot butterfly (Speyeria zerene myrtleae) in Marin and Sonoma cos., and the federal threatened Oregon silverspot butterfly (Speyeria zerene hippolyta) in Del Norte Co.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Jepson Online Interchange
Previous taxon: Viola
Next taxon: Viola arvensis
Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2016. Viola adunca subsp. adunca, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=79074, accessed on April 29, 2016.