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Vascular Plants of California
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Echium candicans
PRIDE OF MADEIRA


Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: EchiumView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Habit: Annual, biennial, [perennial herb], shrub; strigose to bristly-hairy. Leaf: basal and cauline, linear to lanceolate, entire. Inflorescence: panicle-like cymes, terminal; branches 3--many, +- spike-like. Flower: radial to +- bilateral; calyx deep-lobed, often longer in fruit; corolla throat straight or +- curved, lobes equal or not; stamens 5, attached below mid-tube, included or exserted; style exserted. Fruit: nutlet erect, short, ovate, 3-angled, scar basal, flat.
Species In Genus: 40 species: southern Eurasia, Africa. Etymology: (Greek: viper, from nutlet shaped like viper's head) Note: Several entities cultivated for ornamental, especially on California coast, some potentially naturalized, some may be hybrids.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley
Unabridged Reference: Bramwell 1972 Lagascalia 2:37--115
Echium candicans L. f.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Long-lived shrub 10--20(30) dm, many-branched. Leaf: persistent, 6--25 cm, narrow-elliptic, dense-strigose, few hairs bulbous-based. Inflorescence: 15--40 cm, elliptic, dense; branches many, +- spreading. Flower: +- radial; calyx 4--5(7) mm; corolla limb 9--11 mm diam, blue to violet, tube +- = calyx; stamens long-exserted. Fruit: black, rough, fine-tubercled. Chromosomes: 2n=16.
Ecology: Open, dry slopes, bluffs; Elevation: < 500 m. Bioregional Distribution: CCo, SnFrB, SCo, s SnGb; Distribution Outside California: native to Madeira, Macaronesia. Flowering Time: Feb--Oct
Unabridged Note: Shrubs with flowers pink to pale blue, nutlets sharp-tubercled belong to Echium strictum L. f.
Jepson eFlora Author: Ronald B. Kelley
Unabridged Reference: Bramwell 1972 Lagascalia 2:37--115
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Botanical illustration including Echium candicans

botanical illustration including Echium candicans

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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley 2012, Echium candicans, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=77286, accessed on September 18, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on September 18, 2019.

Echium candicans
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Echium candicans
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Echium candicans
click for enlargement
© 2015 Neal Kramer
Echium candicans
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Echium candicans
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Echium candicans
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer

More photos of Echium candicans in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Echium candicans:
CCo, SnFrB, SCo, s SnGb
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.