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Pentagramma triangularis subsp. triangularis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PteridaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BRAKE FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, in soil or on or among rocks; rhizome creeping to erect, scaly. Leaf: generally all +- alike (or of 2 kinds, fertile, sterile), generally < 50 cm, often < 25 cm; stipe generally thin, wiry, often dark, ×-section with vascular strands generally 1--3, less often many in circle; blade generally pinnate or +- palmate-pinnate (see Adiantum), often >= 2-compound, abaxially often with glands, +- powdery exudate, hairs, or scales; segments round, oblong, fan-shaped, or other, veins generally free. Sporangia: in sori or not, marginal, submarginal, or along veins, covered by recurved, often modified segment margins (false indusia) or not; true indusia 0; spores spheric, sides flat or not, scar with 3 radiating branches.
Genera In Family: +- 40 genera, 500 species: worldwide, especially dry areas. Note: CA members of Cheilanthes moved to the distantly related Myriopteris; Pellaea breweri to be moved as well, from a to-be-redefined Pellaea; traditional, often untenable limits of genera outside CA also being clarified using molecular phylogenetics.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ruth E.B. Kirkpatrick, Alan R. Smith & Thomas Lemieux, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Alan R. Smith, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: PentagrammaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GOLDBACK or SILVERBACK FERN
Habit: Plant in soil or rock crevices; rhizome short-creeping-decumbent, generally 3--5(8) mm wide, scales lance-linear, mid-stripe dark. Leaf: stipe 5--20(32) cm, 0.5--2(3) mm wide; blade generally 2--3-pinnate, 2--8(15) cm, triangular or generally 5-sided, with white or yellow exudate abaxially, with exudate or not adaxially, main axis shallowly to deeply grooved adaxially; lowermost pinnae more strongly developed on basal side; veins free. Sporangia: along veins +- throughout; segment margins unmodified, recurved or not.
Species In Genus: 2 species: western North America. Etymology: (Greek: 5 lines, for leaf blades) Note: A puzzling complex of intergrading chemical, chromosomal, and morphological variants (see Yatskievych et al. 1990 Amer Fern J 80:9--17).
Species: Pentagramma triangularisView Description 

Common Name: GOLDBACK FERN
Habit: Rhizome tip, scales without exudate. Leaf: stipe brown to red-brown, with exudate or not; blade 3--10(18) cm, generally pale to dark green, adaxially generally without exudate. Chromosomes: 2n=60,90,120,150.

Unabridged Note: Expanded author citation: Pentagramma triangularis (Kaulf.) Yatsk., Windham, & E. Wollenw.

Pentagramma triangularis NULL subsp. triangularis
NATIVE
Leaf: blade adaxially generally glabrous, not sticky, margins not recurved; lower pinnae 2--6(11) cm; upper pinnae, pinnules on basal side of lowermost pinnae deeply pinnately lobed to +- 1-pinnate. Chromosomes: 2n=60.
Ecology: Common. Generally shaded, sometimes rocky or wooded areas; Elevation: < 2300 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP, MP (caves in Lava Beds National Monument), SNE, DMtns; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Idaho, Nevada, Baja California. Note: Varies in morphology, cytology, geography, chemistry. Plants with white (instead of yellow) exudate on abaxial blade surfaces have been treated by some as Pentagramma triangularis subsp. semipallida (J.T. Howell) Yatsk. et al. (blades adaxially glabrous) and Pentagramma triangularis subsp. rebmanii Winner & M.G. Simpson (blades adaxially sparsely white-mealy), but further study needed to decide if taxonomic recognition warranted and where the taxa would be placed.
Synonyms: Pentagramma triangularis (Kaulf.) Yatsk., Windham & E. Wollenw. subsp. rebmanii Winner & M.G. Simpson; Pentagramma triangularis subsp. semipallida (J.T. Howell) Yatsk., Windham & E. Wollenw.; Pityrogramma triangularis (Kaulf.) Maxon var. triangularis
Unabridged Note: Varies in morphology, cytology, geography, chemistry. Specimens with white exudate on abaxial blade surfaces have been treated by some as Pentagramma triangularis subsp. semipallida (J.T. Howell) Yatsk., Windham, & E. Wollenw. (blades adaxially glabrous) and Pentagramma triangularis subsp. rebmanii Winner & M.G. Simpson (blades adaxially sparsely white-mealy), but further study needed to decide if taxonomic recognition warranted.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ruth E.B. Kirkpatrick, Alan R. Smith & Thomas Lemieux
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Citation for this treatment: Ruth E.B. Kirkpatrick, Alan R. Smith & Thomas Lemieux 2016. Pentagramma triangularis subsp. triangularis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=77121, accessed on February 05, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 05, 2016.


Pentagramma triangularis subsp. triangularis
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© 2008 Keir Morse
Pentagramma triangularis subsp. triangularis
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© 2007 Neal Kramer
Pentagramma triangularis subsp. triangularis
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© 2012 Barry Rice
Pentagramma triangularis subsp. triangularis
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© 2008 Keir Morse
Pentagramma triangularis subsp. triangularis
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© 2008 Steve Matson
Pentagramma triangularis subsp. triangularis
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse

More photos of Pentagramma triangularis subsp. triangularis in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Pentagramma triangularis subsp. triangularis:
CA-FP, MP (caves in Lava Beds National Monument), SNE, DMtns;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.