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Pentagramma triangularis
GOLDBACK FERN

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PteridaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BRAKE FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, in soil or on or among rocks; rhizome creeping to erect, scaly. Leaf: generally all +- alike (or of 2 kinds, fertile, sterile), generally < 50 cm, often < 25 cm; stipe generally thin, wiry, often dark, ×-section with vascular strands generally 1--3, less often many in circle; blade generally pinnate or +- palmate-pinnate (see Adiantum), often >= 2-compound, abaxially often with glands, +- powdery exudate, hairs, or scales; segments round, oblong, fan-shaped, or other, veins generally free. Sporangia: in sori or not, marginal, submarginal, or along veins, covered by recurved, often modified segment margins (false indusia) or not; true indusia 0; spores spheric, sides flat or not, scar with 3 radiating branches.
Genera In Family: +- 40 genera, 500 species: worldwide, especially dry areas. Note: CA members of Cheilanthes moved to the distantly related Myriopteris; Pellaea breweri to be moved as well, from a to-be-redefined Pellaea; traditional, often untenable limits of genera outside CA also being clarified using molecular phylogenetics.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ruth E.B. Kirkpatrick, Alan R. Smith & Thomas Lemieux, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Alan R. Smith, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: PentagrammaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GOLDBACK or SILVERBACK FERN
Habit: Plant in soil or rock crevices; rhizome short-creeping-decumbent, generally 3--5(8) mm wide, scales lance-linear, mid-stripe dark. Leaf: stipe 5--20(32) cm, 0.5--2(3) mm wide; blade generally 2--3-pinnate, 2--8(15) cm, triangular or generally 5-sided, with white or yellow exudate abaxially, with exudate or not adaxially, main axis shallowly to deeply grooved adaxially; lowermost pinnae more strongly developed on basal side; veins free. Sporangia: along veins +- throughout; segment margins unmodified, recurved or not.
Species In Genus: 2 species: western North America. Etymology: (Greek: 5 lines, for leaf blades) Note: A puzzling complex of intergrading chemical, chromosomal, and morphological variants (see Yatskievych et al. 1990 Amer Fern J 80:9--17).

Pentagramma triangularis (Kaulf.) Yatsk., Windham & E. Wollenw.
NATIVE
Habit: Rhizome tip, scales without exudate. Leaf: stipe brown to red-brown, with exudate or not; blade 3--10(18) cm, generally pale to dark green, adaxially generally without exudate. Chromosomes: 2n=60,90,120,150.

Synonyms: Pityrogramma triangularis (Kaulf.) Maxon
Unabridged Note: Expanded author citation: Pentagramma triangularis (Kaulf.) Yatsk., Windham, & E. Wollenw.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ruth E.B. Kirkpatrick, Alan R. Smith & Thomas Lemieux
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Citation for this treatment: Ruth E.B. Kirkpatrick, Alan R. Smith & Thomas Lemieux 2016. Pentagramma triangularis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=77119, accessed on February 14, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 14, 2016.


Pentagramma triangularis
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© 2005 George W. Hartwell
Pentagramma triangularis subsp. viscosa
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© 2014 Keir Morse
Pentagramma triangularis subsp. viscosa
click for enlargement
© 2014 Keir Morse
Pentagramma triangularis subsp. viscosa
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© 2014 Keir Morse
Pentagramma triangularis subsp. maxonii
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© 2014 Keir Morse
Pentagramma triangularis subsp. viscosa
click for enlargement
© 2014 Keir Morse

More photos of Pentagramma triangularis in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Pentagramma triangularis:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.