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Leptochloa panicea subsp. brachiata
RED SPRANGLETOP

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: LeptochloaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb. Stem: spreading to erect. Leaf: generally cauline; ligule membranous, +- entire to jagged, sometimes ciliate; blade flat. Inflorescence: panicle-like; branches spike- or raceme-like; spikelets short-stalked or sessile. Spikelet: laterally compressed or +- cylindrical; glumes equal or not, 1(3)-veined, short-awned or not; axis breaking apart above glumes and between florets; florets generally 2--12; lemma back rounded or keeled, glabrous or hairy, 3-veined, tip obtuse or minutely 2-lobed, awn generally 0; stamens 1--3.
Species In Genus: 32 species: warm temperate, tropics. Etymology: (Greek: slender grass, from slender inflorescence)

Leptochloa panicea (Retz.) Ohwi subsp. brachiata (Steud.) N. Snow
NATIVE
Habit: Annual. Stem: generally erect, 1--15 dm, sometimes +- red or purple. Leaf: sheath papillate-hairy; ligule 1--3 mm, entire to jagged; blade 5--30 cm, 3--20 mm wide. Inflorescence: 3--20 cm; branches generally ascending, lower 5--10 cm. Spikelet: 1--3 mm, compressed; glumes 1--2 mm, +- equal, +- purple; florets (2)3--4; lemma 1--2 mm, keeled, veins hairy, tip minutely 2-lobed, awn 0. Chromosomes: 2n=20.
Ecology: Wet sites, drying ponds; Elevation: < 100 m. Bioregional Distribution: D; Distribution Outside California: to southern United States, Mexico, South America. Flowering Time: Sep--Dec
Synonyms: Leptochloa filiformis (Pers.) P. Beauv.; Leptochloa mucronata (Michx.) Kunth
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
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Citation for this treatment: James P. Smith, Jr. 2016. Leptochloa panicea subsp. brachiata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=77085, accessed on February 09, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 09, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Leptochloa panicea subsp. brachiata:
D;
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.