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Vascular Plants of California
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Epilobium cleistogamum


Higher Taxonomy
Family: OnagraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2--7); petals 4(2--7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
Genera In Family: 22 genera, +- 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). Note: Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: EpilobiumView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: WILLOWHERB
Habit: Annual to subshrub. Leaf: generally opposite proximally (or clustered in axils), generally +- fine-toothed; veins generally obscure. Inflorescence: generally raceme, bracted. Flower: radial or rarely +- bilateral; sepals 4, erect; petals 4, notched; stamens 8, anthers attached at middle, pollen grains generally shed in 4s, cream-yellow; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally club-like, occasionally 4-lobed. Fruit: straight, cylindric to club-like. Seed: generally in 1 row per chamber, generally with white, deciduous hair-tuft.
Species In Genus: 165 species: worldwide except tropics. Etymology: (Greek: upon pod, from inferior ovary) Note: Incl Boisduvalia, Zauschneria. Most taxa polyploid; many with anthers +- = stigma self-pollinated; many hybrids. Taxa with alternate leaves moved to Chamerion.
eFlora Treatment Author: Peter C. Hoch
Reference: Raven 1976 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 63:326--340; Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:81--95
Epilobium cleistogamum (Curran) Hoch & P.H. Raven
NATIVE
Habit: Annual 1.5--3.2 dm, peeling proximally, occasionally with prostrate basal branches, +- glabrous to spreading-hairy. Leaf: opposite only near base, +- sessile, 15--55 mm, linear to narrowly elliptic; distal leaves hairy, often folded along midrib. Inflorescence: leafy, spreading and glandular hairy. Flower: generally cleistogamous; hypanthium 0.5--1 mm; sepals 1--3 mm; petals 2--5.5 mm, white to pale pink; stigma head-like or occasionally barely 4-lobed. Fruit: 8--12 mm, sharply 4-sided, tough, sessile, splitting only on distal third; central axis disintegrating. Seed: in 2 rows per chamber, 1--1.5 mm, netted, glabrous, hair-tuft 0. Chromosomes: 2n=30.
Ecology: Vernal pools, clay flats; Elevation: < 300 m. Bioregional Distribution: SNF, GV, SCoRO. Flowering Time: May--Jul
Synonyms: Boisduvalia cleistogama Curran
Jepson eFlora Author: Peter C. Hoch
Reference: Raven 1976 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 63:326--340; Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:81--95
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Botanical illustration including Epilobium cleistogamum

botanical illustration including Epilobium cleistogamum

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Citation for this treatment: Peter C. Hoch 2012, Epilobium cleistogamum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=76883, accessed on September 19, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on September 19, 2019.

Epilobium cleistogamum
click for enlargement
© 2015 Neal Kramer
Epilobium cleistogamum
click for enlargement
© 2004 Carol W. Witham
Epilobium cleistogamum
click for enlargement
© 2007 Neal Kramer
Epilobium cleistogamum
click for enlargement
© 2015 Neal Kramer
Epilobium cleistogamum
click for enlargement
© 2015 Neal Kramer
Epilobium cleistogamum
click for enlargement
© 2004 Carol W. Witham

More photos of Epilobium cleistogamum in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Epilobium cleistogamum:
SNF, GV, SCoRO.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.