Common Name: LOPSEED FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub. Stem: ×-section generally round. Leaf: opposite, simple, entire or toothed; stipules 0. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, or panicle, bracted, or flowers 1--2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx radial or +- bilateral, tube long, generally ribbed, lobes 5; corolla generally bilateral, generally 2-lipped, upper 2-lobed, lower 3-lobed; stamens 4 in 2 pairs, epipetalous, included or exserted; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers 1--2, placentas parietal or axile, style 1, stigma lobes 2, flat, folding together when touched. Fruit: generally capsule, generally ellipsoid, loculicidal [indehiscent, 1-seeded].
Genera In Family: +- 15 genera, 230 species: +- worldwide, many habitats; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Mimulus, Mazus). Formerly included in Scrophulariaceae. Note: Family description by David J. Keil.
eFlora Treatment Author: David M. Thompson
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Common Name: MONKEYFLOWER
Habit: Glabrous to hairy. Stem: generally erect. Leaf: opposite, generally +- sessile, generally toothed or entire, generally green or +- red. Inflorescence: raceme, bracted, or flowers generally 2 per axil. Flower: occasionally cleistogamous; calyx generally green, lobes 5, generally << tube, generally unequal; corolla generally deciduous, white to red, maroon, purple, gold, or yellow, lower lip base occasionally swollen, +- closing mouth, tube-throat floor generally with 2 longitudinal folds; anther sacs spreading; placentas 2, axile or parietal; stigma lobes generally flat, generally included. Fruit: generally ovoid to fusiform, generally upcurved if elongate, generally +- fragile, loculicidal near tip (hard, indehiscent), chambers 1--2. Seed: many, generally < 1 mm, ovoid, +- yellow to dark brown.
Species In Genus: +- 100 species: North America, Chile, eastern Asia, southern Africa, New Zealand, Australia. Etymology: (Latin: little mime or comic actor, from face-like corolla of some species) Note: Limb width measured between most distant points across corolla face.
Habit: Annual 1--20 cm. Leaf: 2--30 mm, generally narrowly elliptic (obovate); lowest glabrous, upper hairy. Inflorescence: flower 1 per node. Flower: pedicel 1--4 mm; calyx 5--14 mm, widely ribbed, swollen, generally +- red, generally +- white-hairy, lobes +- equal, 0.5--3.5 mm, acute to short-pointed; corolla magenta to red-purple (yellow), persistent, generally darker at mouth, tube-throat 9--23 mm, throat floor +- glabrous, folds yellow; placentas parietal. Fruit: 6.5--13 mm. Chromosomes: n=8.