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Vascular Plants of California
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Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata


Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrchidaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: ORCHID FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other pls], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves +- reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1--many, basal to cauline, linear to +- round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1--many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
Genera In Family: +- 800 genera, +- 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. Note: Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431--445); study needed.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: CorallorhizaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CORALROOT
Habit: Plant +- scapose, brown, tan, +- pink, +- red, +- purple, (+- green); rhizome branches many, short, scaly, together coral-like. Leaf: at flower 0. Inflorescence: raceme; flower bract << flower, often scale-like. Flower: sepals +- alike, oblong to (ob)lanceolate, generally curved over column and lip, generally 3-veined, lower generally fused at base, mentum present or not; lateral petals spreading or curved toward lip, lip not spurred, entire to 3-lobed, spreading to reflexed; column generally convex adaxially, concave abaxially, curved over lip. Fruit: pendent.
Species In Genus: 11 species: North America, Central America, Eurasia. Etymology: (Greek: coral root)
Species: Corallorhiza maculataView Description 


Common Name: SPOTTED CORALROOT
Habit: Plant 17--55 cm. Stem: red to yellow-brown to yellow. Flower: sepals 5.5--10 mm, lower spreading, color generally same as stems, mentum < 2.5 mm; lateral petals generally like sepals, yellow-brown or deep pink to red, dark-spotted or not, lip 5--7 mm, with 2 rounded lobes laterally, white, unspotted or generally red- to purple-spotted, tip crenate or toothed; column 3--5 mm, +- yellow, purple-spotted. Fruit: 15--20 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=42.
Note: Where together, Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis typically flowers 2--4 weeks earlier than Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata.
Corallorhiza maculata (Raf.) Raf. var. maculata
NATIVE
Inflorescence: flower bracts generally 0.5--1 mm, generally entire. Flower: lip +- not widening to tip.
Ecology: Shaded mixed-evergreen or conifer forest, in decomposing leaf litter; Elevation: < 2800 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, SN (exc Teh), SnFrB, SCoRO, SnGb, SnBr, PR, MP, W&I; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Colorado, New Mexico, also southeastern Canada, northeastern United States. Flowering Time: May--Aug
Jepson eFlora Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings
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Citation for this treatment: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings 2012, Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=75479, accessed on October 15, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on October 15, 2019.

Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse
Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse
Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata
click for enlargement
© 2017 Vernon Smith
Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata
click for enlargement
© 2016 Vernon Smith
Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling

More photos of Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata:
NW, CaR, SN (exc Teh), SnFrB, SCoRO, SnGb, SnBr, PR, MP, W&I
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.