Common Name: BROOMRAPE FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to +- fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1--2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0--5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1--2, placentas 2--4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally +- ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2--4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
Genera In Family: 99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. Note: High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Common Name: PAINTBRUSH, OWL'S-CLOVER
Habit: Annual to subshrub, green. Leaf: sessile, entire to dissected. Inflorescence: spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, mature tips generally cream to red or green. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, colored like bract tips; corolla upper 2 lip lobes fused, beak-like, tip open, lower lip reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted. Fruit: +- asymmetric. Seed: generally +- brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls ladder-like or not.
Species In Genus: +- 200 species: especially western North America. Etymology: (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist, 1744--1793) Note: Hybridization and polyploidy common. Biologically consistent taxa difficult to define. Castilleja chrymactis Pennell not in California, sole (1947) record a misidentified, incomplete specimen.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard
Habit: Perennial herb 30--120 cm, (gray-)green, becoming +- purple, +- puberulent to hairs long- and short-glandular. Stem: with short axillary shoots. Leaf: 30--80 mm, lanceolate; lobes 0--3. Inflorescence: 6--40 cm, open proximally; bracts 20--60 mm, generally entire, tips bright red to orange-red; pedicels < 10 mm (distal 0). Flower: calyx 20--32 mm, divided 2/3 abaxially, 1/6--1/3 adaxially, glandular-puberulent and long-hairy, lobes acute to obtuse, +- curved upward; corolla (including lower lip) generally curved out through abaxial calyx sinus, 30--50 mm, beak +- = tube, yellow-green, margins rose-pink, beak densely shaggy-puberulent, lower lip 2--3 mm, dark green or +- purple; stigma unlobed. Fruit: 10--15 mm. Seed: +- 2 mm; coat deeply netted, tight-fitting, most walls ladder-like.
Note: Range is discontinuous.