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Fritillaria biflora var. biflora

Higher Taxonomy
Family: LiliaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: LILY FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb from membranous bulb or scaly rhizome. Stem: underground or erect, branched or not. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, subopposite, or whorled. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, +- umbel-like or not. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 generally petal-like whorls, often showy; stamens 3 or 6, filaments free or +- fused to perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or +- so, style 1, entire or 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule or berry. Seed: 3--many, flat or angled, brown to black.
Genera In Family: 16 genera, 635 species: northern temperate. Note: Users strongly encouraged to protect plants by working around need to see underground parts in using keys, e.g., by trying both leads in couplets solely dependent on such characters. Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. an historical waif in California. Other TJM (1993) taxa moved to Agavaceae (Agave, Camassia, Chlorogalum, Hastingsia, Hesperocallis, Hesperoyucca, Leucocrinum, Yucca), Alliaceae (Allium, Ipheion, Nothoscordum), Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis, Narcissus, Pancratium), Asparagaceae (Asparagus), Asphodelaceae (Aloe, Asphodelus, Kniphofia), Melanthiaceae (Pseudotrillium, Stenanthium, Toxicoscordion, Trillium, Veratrum, Xerophyllum), Nartheciaceae (Narthecium), Ruscaceae (Maianthemum, Nolina), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Tecophilaeaceae (Odontostomum), Themidaceae (Androstephium, Bloomeria, Brodiaea, Dichelostemma, Muilla, Triteleia), and Tofieldiaceae (Triantha). North American species of Disporum now in Prosartes.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dale W. McNeal, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: FritillariaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: FRITILLARY
Habit: Bulb with 1--several large fleshy scales, 0--many small scales. Stem: erect, simple (0 in non-flowering plants). Leaf: cauline, alternate, subopposite, or whorled below, sessile, linear to +- ovate (1 bulb-leaf in non-flowering plants). Inflorescence: raceme; bracts leaf-like. Flower: generally nodding, bell- or cup-shaped; perianth parts 6 in 2 whorls, each part with distinct glandular area in lower 1/2; stamens 6, included, attached at perianth base, anthers attached +- near middle; ovary +- sessile, style 1, +- entire or 3-branched. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal, thin-walled, +- rounded, 6-angled, or winged, chambers 3. Seed: many, 2 rows per chamber, flat, +- brown.
Species In Genus: +- 100 species: northern temperate. Etymology: (Latin: dicebox, from fruit shape) Note: Bulbs of some eaten by Native Americans.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dale W. McNeal & Bryan D. Ness
Species: Fritillaria bifloraView Description 

Common Name: CHOCOLATE LILY, MISSION BELLS
Habit: Large bulb scales 2--8, small 0--4. Stem: 1--4.5 dm. Leaf: 3--7, alternate, often +- crowded just above ground, 5--19 cm, linear or oblong to narrowly ovate. Flower: nodding; perianth parts 1.8--4 cm, narrowly ovoid, dark brown, green-purple, or yellow-green, nectary prominent, 2/3 perianth, narrowly linear, +- purple to +- green; style divided 1/2--2/3. Fruit: angled.


Fritillaria biflora Lindl. var. biflora
NATIVE
Leaf: 8--40 mm wide, oblong to narrowly ovate. Flower: 1.8--4 cm, not ill-scented. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Grassy slopes, mesas, serpentine barrens; Elevation: < 1300 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo (Mendocino Co.), NCoR (Mendocino, Napa cos.), CW, SW. Flowering Time: Mar--May
Synonyms: Fritillaria roderickii W. Knight
eFlora Treatment Author: Dale W. McNeal & Bryan D. Ness
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botanical illustration including Fritillaria biflora var. biflora

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Citation for this treatment: Dale W. McNeal & Bryan D. Ness 2016. Fritillaria biflora var. biflora, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=72344, accessed on February 05, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 05, 2016.


Fritillaria biflora var. biflora
click for enlargement
© 2006 Steve Matson
Fritillaria biflora var. biflora
click for enlargement
© 2006 Steve Matson
Fritillaria biflora var. biflora
click for enlargement
© 2006 Steve Matson
Fritillaria biflora var. biflora
click for enlargement
© 2006 Steve Matson
Fritillaria biflora var. biflora
click for enlargement
© 2006 Steve Matson

More photos of Fritillaria biflora var. biflora in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Fritillaria biflora var. biflora:
NCo (Mendocino Co.), NCoR (Mendocino, Napa cos.), CW, SW.
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.