Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon
Oenothera californica subsp. californica

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OnagraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2--7); petals 4(2--7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
Genera In Family: 22 genera, +- 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). Note: Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: OenotheraView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: EVENING-PRIMROSE
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, generally from taproot, occasionally rhizomed. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, generally pinnately toothed to lobed, generally sessile. Inflorescence: spike, raceme-like, or flowers in axils of distal, reduced leaves. Flower: radial or (sect. Gaura) bilateral, generally opening at dusk; sepals 4, reflexed in flower (sometimes 2--3 remaining adherent); petals 4, yellow, white, rose, or +- purple, generally fading +- orange to +- purple, tip notched or toothed; stamens 8, filaments sometimes (sect. Gaura) with paired teeth at base, anthers attached at middle; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally deeply lobed, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated (or +- = anthers and self-pollinated). Fruit: generally dehiscent, cylindric to ovoid or obovoid, cylindric to 4-winged or -angled, straight to curved, generally sessile (base sometimes seedless, stalk-like). Seed: in generally 2(1--3) rows per chamber, or clustered or reduced to 1--4 per fruit.
Species In Genus: 145 species: America, some widely naturalized. Etymology: (Greek: wine-scented)
Unabridged Note: Many species self-pollinated; some of these have chromosome peculiarities (ring of 14 in meiosis) and +- 50% pollen fertility; they yield genetically identical offspring.
Species: Oenothera californicaView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb, rosetted when young, glabrous to densely minutely strigose, also sometimes with longer, spreading hairs; roots generally not fleshy, generally new shoots from laterals. Stem: decumbent or ascending, 1--8 dm, peeling. Leaf: cauline 1--6 cm, lanceolate to deltate-ovate, entire to pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: flowers in distal axils; buds nodding. Flower: hypanthium 20--40 mm; sepals 15--30 mm, free tips in bud 0 or < 1 mm; petals 15--35 mm, white fading pink. Fruit: 2--3 mm wide, cylindric, straight or curved. Seed: in 1 row per chamber, 1.4--3 mm, obovate, smooth. Chromosomes: 2n=14,28.
Note: Cross-pollinated.

Oenothera californica (S. Watson) S. Watson subsp. californica
NATIVE
Habit: Plant green to slightly gray; hairs 0, or dense, short, appressed, also sometimes long, spreading. Stem: new rosettes not formed at tips. Leaf: cauline oblong to lanceolate, +- entire to deeply wavy-dentate. Fruit: 30--55 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=28.
Ecology: Sandy or gravelly areas, open, coastal-sage scrub, chaparral, oak woodland; Elevation: < 1900 m. Bioregional Distribution: c&s CW, SW, s DMtns (Little San Bernardino Mtns); Distribution Outside California: northwestern Baja California. Flowering Time: Apr--Jun Note: Intergrades with Oenothera californica subsp. avita.
Synonyms: Oenothera californica var. glabrata Munz
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner
Jepson Online Interchange

Previous taxon: Oenothera californica subsp. avita
Next taxon: Oenothera californica subsp. eurekensis

Name Search
botanical illustration including Oenothera californica subsp. californica

Contact/Feedback

Citation for this treatment: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner 2016. Oenothera californica subsp. californica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=70420, accessed on May 30, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 30, 2016.


Oenothera californica subsp. californica
click for enlargement
© 2005 Christopher L. Christie

More photos of Oenothera californica subsp. californica in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Oenothera californica subsp. californica:
c&s CW, SW, s DMtns (Little San Bernardino Mtns);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.