Common Name: PLANTAIN FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1--few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4--5, generally fused at base; corolla 4--5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1--2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, 2--4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
Genera In Family: 110 genera, +- 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Note: Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Common Name: SNAPDRAGON
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, glabrous to hairy. Stem: ascending, erect, or vine-like, often clinging by twining pedicels or branchlets. Leaf: proximal generally opposite, distal alternate, generally reduced distally on stem; veins pinnate. Inflorescence: cleistogamous or opening; raceme or flower 1 in axils. Flower: uppermost calyx lobe generally largest; corolla tube of opening flowers truncate or with rounded sac-like extension at base, lower lip base generally swollen, closing throat; stamens 4, generally included, staminode 0; style included, straight or curved, glabrous or glandular-puberulent to near tip, stigma inconspicuous. Fruit: ovoid to spheric; chambers 2, generally dehiscent by 1--2 pores near tip, lower chamber generally larger, upper occasionally indehiscent. Seed: many, generally with tubercles or netted ridges, winged or not.
Species In Genus: 35 species: western North America, western Mediterranean. Etymology: (Greek: nose-like, from corolla shape) Note: North America taxa more closely related to Mohavea than to Mediterranean taxa; revision needed. Antirrhinum cyathiferum moved to Pseudorontium.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax & David M. Thompson
Habit: Annual, rarely biennial, glandular-hairy. Stem: erect but weak, often clinging to other plants or debris. Leaf: petiole < 25 mm; blade < 60 mm, ovate, acute, mucronate. Inflorescence: flower 1 in axils, opening and cleistogamous; pedicels generally 2--18(25) mm, proximal-most generally subtended by twining branchlets, flower branchlets, or both. Flower: calyx lobes +- equal; cleistogamous flowers minute, white; corolla of opening flowers 7--12 mm, lavender to blue-purple with 1--2 blue-veined white blotches on lower lip base and gold hairs in mouth (hair color unique in California plants). Fruit: oblique-ovoid; chambers unequal, dehiscent by 3 pores at tip, 1 in upper chamber, 2 in lower. Seed: < 1 mm, ovoid, brown. Chromosomes: n=16.
Note: Subspecies hybridize near coast.