Common Name: SUNFLOWER FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Bahia in Hymenothrix; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Picradeniopsis; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Amauriopsis in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Hymenothrix; Arida in Leucosyris; Bahia in Picradeniopsis.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Common Name: BRICKELLBUSH
Habit: [Annual] perennial herb to shrub. Leaf: simple, alternate or opposite, generally resinous-dotted, veiny, main veins generally 3. Inflorescence: heads discoid, generally clustered; involucre cylindric to bell-shaped; phyllaries generally graduated, +- green, veiny-striate, spreading in age; receptacle generally flat, epaleate. Flower: corolla cylindric, +- white to pale yellow-green, occasionally tinged red or purple; anther tip ovate; style branches long, club-shaped, tips rounded. Fruit: 10-ribbed, generally cylindric, generally hairy; pappus of 10--40+ generally minutely barbed bristles, generally white.
Species In Genus: 110 species: western United States, Mexico, Central America. Etymology: (John Brickell, early botanist in Georgia)
eFlora Treatment Author: Randall W. Scott
Habit: Shrub 30--70 cm. Stem: much-branched, puberulent or with long, crooked hairs mixed with glands or gland-tipped hairs, occasionally tomentose. Leaf: alternate, petiole 0--3 mm, blade 3--20 mm, 1--15 mm wide, ovate to +- round, entire, coarsely dentate, or serrate, base acute to obtuse or rounded, tip rounded to acute, faces glandular, and with long, crooked hairs or small, sharp, bristle-like hairs. Inflorescence: heads in loose, panicle-like clusters, often grouped at branch ends; peduncle bracted, 2--10 mm, sticky glandular or glands mixed with long, crooked hairs; involucre 7--12 mm, cylindric to narrowly bell-shaped; phyllaries 30--48, in 6--9 series, often purple-tinged, 3--5-striate, recurved or spreading, tip acute to acuminate, margin scarious; outer obovate to +- round, puberulent and glandular, middle occasionally 3-toothed with center tooth elongated, inner linear-oblong, glabrous or sparsely gland-dotted. Flower: 8--28; corolla 5.5--7, mm pale yellow, often purple-tinged. Fruit: 3.5--4.7 mm, glabrous or minutely stiff-spreading-hairy; pappus bristles 18--24. Chromosomes: 2n=18.
Note: Varieties intergrade.
Unabridged Note: Brickellia microphylla var. scabra has a more eastern and southern distribution; it grades into Brickellia microphylla var. microphylla in southern and central Utah and eastern California. Brickellia watsonii, more recently recognized as Brickellia microphylla var. watsonii, is distinguished by its tomentose-puberulent, often glandular, indument (contrasted with the stems of Brickellia microphylla var. microphylla which are sparsely to densely covered with long, crooked hairs, these often intermixed with glands or gland-tipped hairs), and heads with +- 18 flowers (versus 15--24(34) in Brickellia microphylla var. microphylla); such distinctions have proved to be weakly substantiated, at best. Many specimens from UT and some from eastern DMtns are densely tomentose (closely approaching Brickellia nevinii), but numerous other specimens display only a slight degree of tomentum along with numerous long gland-tipped hairs. Most of these have 16--24 florets per head and can be assigned to Brickellia microphylla var. microphylla. Other specimens (some previously determined as Brickellia watsonii) of eastern DMoj have fewer florets per head (8--12) and are puberulent or hairy.