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Vascular Plants of California
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Salix lasiandra var. caudata
TAIL-LEAF WILLOW


Higher Taxonomy
Family: SalicaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: WILLOW FAMILY
Habit: Shrub, tree; dioecious (monoecious). Stem: trunk < 40 m; wood soft; bark smooth, bitter; buds scaly. Leaf: simple, alternate, deciduous; stipules generally present, deciduous or not, often large. Inflorescence: catkin [or various, or flowers 1]; each flower subtended by 1 bract. Flower: perianth modified into non-nectariferous, cup- or saucer-shaped structure or reduced to adaxial nectary (rarely also with abaxial nectary, then free or fused into shallow cup). Staminate Flower: stamens 2--many. Pistillate Flower: pistil 1, ovary superior to 1/2-inferior, chambers generally 2--4, placentas parietal, stigma lobes 2--4. Fruit: berry, drupe, or 2--4-valved capsule. Seed: often with basal tuft of hairs.
Genera In Family: 58 genera, 1210 species: widespread in tropics, northern temperate, arctic. Note: Now including many genera (e.g., Flacourtia, Idesia, Xylosma) formerly in Flacourtiaceae, at least in part because of presence on leaf margins in both families of salicoid teeth (vein extending to tooth tip). In California (and generally outside California), Populus pollinated by wind, Salix by insects, wind. Hybrids common; identification often difficult.
eFlora Treatment Author: John O. Sawyer, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: SalixView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: WILLOW
Habit: Shrub, tree; dioecious; bud scale 1, not sticky, margins generally fused (or free, overlapping). Stem: twigs generally flexible, generally not glaucous. Leaf: generally alternate; stipules generally vestigial on first leaves, leaf-like on later; mature blade linear to broadly obovate, entire to toothed, generally +- hairy; petiole glands generally 0. Inflorescence: catkin, blooming before, with, or after leaves, sessile or terminating +- short leafy or bracted shoot ("on leafy shoot" or "on bracted shoot," "catkin length" including leafless or bractless part of subtending shoot); 1 flower bract subtending each flower, deciduous or persistent, brown, black, or 2-colored (paler proximally, darker distally; darker generally +- brown). Flower: perianth reduced to adaxial nectary (rarely also with abaxial nectary, then free or fused into shallow cup). Staminate Flower: stamens (1)2(10); nectary generally 1. Pistillate Flower: ovary stalked or sessile, style generally 1, stigmas 2, each 2-lobed, deciduous or persistent; nectary generally 1, generally rod-like. Fruit: valves 2.
Species In Genus: +- 450 species: +- worldwide, especially northern temperate, arctic. Etymology: (Latin: ancient name) Note: Difficult, highly variable, many hybrids. Not all specimens key easily; sprouts, other extreme forms not included in keys, may require field comparisons. Studies of chromosome numbers, hybridization needed. Inclusion of Salix sessilifolia Nutt. in TJM (1993) based on misidentification of plants belonging to Salix melanopsis. Fruit length as given throughout excludes the stalk (stipe). Hair lengths: minute, < +- 0.5 mm; short, +- 0.5 mm; long, > +- 0.5 mm. Salix commutata Bebb, treated as misapplied to Salix eastwoodiae in TJM (1993), may occur in northern California mountains; Salix bonplandiana expected in s-most California. For alternate treatments, see Dorn (e.g., 2000 Brittonia 52:1--19).
eFlora Treatment Author: George W. Argus
Reference: Argus 1997 Madroño 44:115--136
Unabridged Reference: Dorn, R. D. 1995. A taxonomic study of Salix section Cordatae subsection Luteae (Salicaceae). Brittonia 47: 160--174. Dorn, R. D. 1998. A taxonomic study of Salix section Longifoliae (Salicaceae) Brittonia 50: 193--210. Dorn, R. D. 2000. A taxonomic study of Salix sections Mexicanae and Viminella subsection Sitchenses (Salicaceae) in North America. Brittonia 52: 1--19.
Species: Salix lasiandraView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Habit: Shrub to tree, 1--11 m. Stem: twigs yellow-, gray-, or red-brown, glabrous or soft-shaggy-hairy, brittle at base or not. Leaf: stipules leaf-like, glandular; petiole with glands; young leaves glabrous or white- or white-and-rusty-hairy; mature blade 53--170 mm, lanceolate, acuminate to long-acuminate (base convex to rounded), finely serrate. Inflorescence: blooming with leaves, pistillate 18.5--103 mm, on leafy shoots 6--56 mm; flower bract +- tan; pistillate bracts deciduous. Staminate Flower: stamens 3--5; nectaries adaxial, abaxial. Pistillate Flower: ovary glabrous, stalk 0.8--4 mm, style 0.2--0.8 mm; nectary adaxial.

Salix lasiandra var. caudata (Nutt.) Sudw.
NATIVE
Leaf: petiole (1)4--15 mm, with pair or cluster of +- leaf-like glands; mature blade sparsely long-soft-shaggy, hairs white or white and rusty, straight or curved, to +- 0. Chromosomes: 2n=76.
Ecology: Wet meadows, lakeshores, riverbanks; Elevation: 35--3050 m. Bioregional Distribution: SNH, SnBr, GB; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, South Dakota, New Mexico. Flowering Time: May--Jun
Synonyms: Salix lucida Muhl. subsp. caudata (Nutt.) E. Murray; Salix caudata (Nutt.) A. Heller var. bryantiana C.R. Ball & N.F. Bracelin
Jepson eFlora Author: George W. Argus
Reference: Argus 1997 Madroño 44:115--136
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Citation for this treatment: George W. Argus 2012, Salix lasiandra var. caudata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=65746, accessed on October 20, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on October 20, 2019.

No expert verified images found for Salix lasiandra var. caudata.



Geographic subdivisions for Salix lasiandra var. caudata:
SNH, SnBr, GB
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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
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Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.