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Quercus agrifolia var. agrifolia

Higher Taxonomy
Family: FagaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: OAK FAMILY
Habit: Shrub, tree, evergreen or not; monoecious. Leaf: simple, alternate, petioled; margin entire to lobed; stipules small, generally deciduous. Staminate Inflorescence: catkin or stiff spike, many-flowered. Pistillate Inflorescence: 1--few-flowered, generally above staminate inflorescence; involucre bracts many, generally overlapping, flat or cylindric. Staminate Flower: calyx generally 4--6-lobed, minute; petals 0; stamens 4--12+. Pistillate Flower: calyx generally 6-lobed, minute; petals 0; ovary inferior, style branches generally 3. Fruit: 1 nut subtended, partly enclosed by scaly, cup-like involucre or 1--3 nuts subtended, enclosed by spiny, bur-like involucre; mature years 1--2. Seed: generally 1.
Genera In Family: 7 genera, +- 900 species: generally northern hemisphere. Note: Wood of Quercus critical for pre-20th century ship-building, charcoal for metallurgy; some now supply wood (Fagus, Quercus), cork (Quercus suber), food (Castanea, chestnut). Lithocarpus densiflorus moved to Notholithocarpus.
eFlora Treatment Author: John M. Tucker, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: QuercusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: OAK
Habit: Evergreen or not. Leaf: stipules small, generally early-deciduous. Staminate Inflorescence: catkins, 1--several, pendent, slender, proximal on twig. Pistillate Inflorescence: in distal leaf axils, short-stalked; flower generally 1. Staminate Flower: stamens 4--10. Pistillate Flower: calyx minute, generally 6-lobed; ovary enclosed by involucre. Fruit: nut 1, partly enclosed by cup-like involucre (cup) with appressed scales (nut and cup = acorn), remnants of perianth and style persistent as small point at tip; scales tubercled to not; mature in years 1 (on younger stems) or 2 (on older stems). Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Species In Genus: +- 600 species: northern hemisphere, to northern South America, India. Etymology: (Latin: ancient name for oak) Note: Many named hybrids; those (3) treated here form widespread populations; most others occur as single individuals, and some but not all of these are mentioned here, under the first parent treated (alphabetically). Reproduction of many species declining due to habitat degradation or loss as well as disease. Quercus robur added, as waif.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti & John M. Tucker
Species: Quercus agrifoliaView Description 

Habit: Tree (6)10--25 m, evergreen; top wide; trunk bark furrowed, +- checkered, +- gray. Leaf: 2.5--6(9) cm; petiole 4--15 mm; blade generally widely elliptic to round, generally adaxially convex, +- dull green, abaxially glabrous to densely tomentose, dull, pale green, tip rounded to spine-toothed, margin rolled under or not, weakly spine-toothed. Fruit: cup 10--16 mm wide, 8--15 mm deep, obconic, scales thin, +- not tubercled, +- glabrous, +- brown; nut 25--35 mm, slender, ovoid, distally acute, shell woolly inside; mature in year 1.

Quercus agrifolia Née var. agrifolia
Leaf: abaxially glabrous to sparsely hairy except vein axils hair-tufted.
Ecology: Valleys, slopes, mixed-evergreen forest, woodland; Elevation: < 1440 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCoRO, NCoRI, ScV, CW, SW; Distribution Outside California: Baja California. Flowering Time: Mid Jan--Apr Note: Hybridizes with Quercus kelloggii (Quercus ×chasei McMinn et al.), Quercus parvula var. shrevei, Quercus wislizeni.
Synonyms: Quercus agrifolia var. frutescens Engelm.
Unabridged Note: Hybridizes with Quercus kelloggii (Quercus ×chasei McMinn, Babc., & Righter), Quercus parvula var. shrevei, Quercus wislizeni.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti & John M. Tucker
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botanical illustration including Quercus agrifolia var. agrifolia


Citation for this treatment: Thomas J. Rosatti & John M. Tucker 2017. Quercus agrifolia var. agrifolia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 2,, accessed on April 26, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 26, 2017.

Geographic subdivisions for Quercus agrifolia var. agrifolia:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.