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Phytolacca americana var. americana
POKEWEED

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PhytolaccaceaeView Description 

Common Name: POKEWEED FAMILY
Habit: [Annual to] perennial herb [to tree], generally +- glabrous. Leaf: alternate, simple, entire, generally petioled; stipules 0 or vestigial. Inflorescence: spike, raceme [panicle], [axillary or] terminal (then often lateral, +- opposite a leaf, by growth of bud axillary to that leaf); bract 1; bractlets 2. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals [4]5[10], fused at base, generally persistent; petals 0; stamens 4--many, generally on disk, free or fused at base, in 1--2 whorls or not; carpels generally 1--12, [free] to fused, ovary generally superior, carpels = styles, chambers in number, ovules 1 per chamber, stigmas linear or thread-like. Fruit: berry [achene, capsule, drupe, nut, samara].
Genera In Family: +- 18 genera, 130 species: +- worldwide, especially America tropics, subtropics. Note: A broad family concept adopted here, as many as 6 segregate families sometimes recognized by others.
eFlora Treatment Author: John W. Thieret, final revision by Thomas J. Rosatti
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: PhytolaccaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb [to tree]; axes often +- red to purple. Flower: sepals 5[8], petal-like; stamens generally 5--30; carpels 5--12, +- fused. Fruit: berry, chambers 5--12. Seed: 1 per chamber.
Species In Genus: +- 25 species: tropics, subtropics, especially America. Etymology: (Greek, Latin: plant, crimson dye, from fruit color)

Phytolacca americana L. var. americana
NATURALIZED
Habit: Plant to 3(7) m. Leaf: blade 8--35 cm, 3--18 cm wide, lanceolate to ovate; petiole 1--6 cm. Inflorescence: +- open raceme, spreading to generally drooping, (10)12--30 cm; peduncle to 15 cm; pedicel 3--13 mm. Flower: sepals +- equal, 2.5--3.3 mm, ovate to +- round, +- white to +- pink; stamens 10, generally in 1 whorl; carpels 6--12, fused at least in basal 1/2. Fruit: 6--11 mm diam, purple-black. Seed: 2.5--3 mm, lenticular, black, shiny. Chromosomes: 2n=36.
Ecology: Uncommon. Disturbed areas, roadsides; Elevation: generally < 1000 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP; Distribution Outside California: native to eastern United States. Flowering Time: Summer--fall
Unabridged Note: Intermediates in eastern United States between Phytolacca americana L. var. americana --- pedicels in fruit > 6 mm, > fruit; inflorescence spreading to generally drooping, (10)12--30 cm; widespread, including California --- and Phytolacca americana L. var. rigida (Small) Caulkins & R.W. Wyatt --- pedicels in fruit < 6(7) mm, < fruit; inflorescence erect, 6--9(13.5) cm; Virginia to Texas; various plant parts sources of dye, food, medicine, yet poisonous to humans, other animals when ingested without careful, experienced preparation.
eFlora Treatment Author: John W. Thieret, final revision by Thomas J. Rosatti
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Weed listed by Cal-IPC

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Citation for this treatment: John W. Thieret, final revision by Thomas J. Rosatti 2016. Phytolacca americana var. americana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=63756, accessed on February 08, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 08, 2016.


Phytolacca americana var. americana
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© 2014 Neal Kramer
Phytolacca americana var. americana
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© 2013 Keir Morse
Phytolacca americana var. americana
click for enlargement
© 2013 Keir Morse
Phytolacca americana var. americana
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Breckling
Phytolacca americana var. americana
click for enlargement
© 2013 Keir Morse
Phytolacca americana var. americana
click for enlargement
© 2014 Neal Kramer

More photos of Phytolacca americana var. americana in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Phytolacca americana var. americana:
CA-FP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.