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Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata
GOLDEN CROWNBEARD

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: SUNFLOWER FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Taxa of Arida in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Leucosyris.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: VerbesinaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CROWNBEARD
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub. Leaf: simple, opposite or alternate. Inflorescence: heads radiate [discoid], 1 or in few- to many-headed cyme-like clusters; phyllaries in 2--6 equal to very unequal series, free; receptacle flat to conic, paleate; paleae entire, folded around ovaries. Ray Flower: pistillate or sterile; corolla +- yellow [white]. Disk Flower: 60--150+ (in California); corolla yellow to orange; style branches acute to acuminate. Fruit: ray fruit 3-sided or 0; disk fruit +- elliptic to obovate, compressed, generally wing-margined; pappus 0 or of 2 awns.
Species In Genus: +- 300 species: temps, tropical mountains, northern hemisphere, South America, Africa. Etymology: (Derived from Verbena)

Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex A. Gray subsp. exauriculata (B.L. Rob. & Greenm.) J.R. Coleman
NATURALIZED
Habit: Plant 15--130 cm; odor unpleasant. Stem: densely short-hairy. Leaf: alternate except nodes near base opposite; blade lanceolate to triangular-ovate, 3-veined from base, coarsely dentate. Inflorescence: heads 1--many; peduncle subtended by leaf-like bracts; phyllaries in 2 or 3 +- equal series, 8--10 mm, lance-linear, acute, +- strigose; paleae 6--8 mm, abruptly acuminate. Ray Flower: ray orange-yellow, generally 8--10 mm, +- 3-lobed. Disk Flower: corolla 5--6 mm; anthers yellow to light brown. Fruit: ray fruit 3--4 mm, obovoid, 3-sided, wing 0, pappus 0; disk fruit 4--6.5 mm, obovate, flattened, brown or black, soft-hairy, wing wide, +- white, corky, pappus awns 2, 1--2.5 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=34.
Ecology: Disturbed areas, roadsides, fields; Elevation: generally <= 300 m. Bioregional Distribution: SnJV, s CCo, SCoR, SCo, DSon; Distribution Outside California: western North America; native Arizona to Great Plains, Mexico. Toxicity: TOXIC to livestock but unpalatable. Flowering Time: May--Jan
Synonyms: Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex A. Gray var. exauriculata B.L. Rob. & Greenm.
Unabridged Note: A 2nd variety in eastern North America.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil
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Citation for this treatment: David J. Keil 2016. Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=6252, accessed on July 27, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on July 27, 2016.


Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling
Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling

More photos of Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata:
SnJV, s CCo, SCoR, SCo, DSon;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.