Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Linnaea borealis var. longiflora

Higher Taxonomy
Family: LinnaeaceaeView Description 

Habit: Subshrub [to small tree]. Leaf: opposite, simple [compound]; stipules generally 0. Flower: calyx tube fused to ovary, limb generally 5-lobed; corolla radial [or bilateral], rotate to cylindric, generally 5-lobed; stamens generally 4 inserted at 2 levels, epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes; ovary inferior, 1--5-chambered, style 1. Fruit: achene or capsule, 1-seeded.
Genera In Family: 4 genera, 35 species: especially northern temperate. Note: Incl in Caprifoliaceae in TJM (1993), and possibly in future.
Unabridged Note: Incl in Caprifoliaceae in TJM (1993), and possibly in future according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (, which states, in part, "The whole lot might usefully be combined in a Caprifoliaceae s.l. (see also APG 2003), since similarities between the families are considerable and differences are mostly slight."
eFlora Treatment Author: Charles D. Bell, family description
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: LinnaeaView Description 

Common Name: TWIN FLOWER
Habit: Plant creeping, evergreen. Inflorescence: flowers generally 2 at forked tip of slender erect peduncle, nodding. Flower: calyx lobes slender, tapered; corolla bell- to funnel-shaped above slender tube; stamens 4, 2 shorter and inserted near corolla tube base; ovary chambers 3, 2 with aborting ovules, 1 with 1 developing ovule. Fruit: capsule, 3-valved.
Species In Genus: 1 sp., +- 3 vars.: circumboreal. Etymology: (Named for Linnaeus, often depicted with a sample of this, one of his favorite plants)
eFlora Treatment Author: Charles D. Bell & Lauramay T. Dempster

Linnaea borealis L. var. longiflora Torr.
Stem: 15--20 cm, slender. Leaf: petiole +- 2 mm; blade 12--18 mm, ovate, serrate above middle. Inflorescence: peduncle +- 6 cm; inner bracts 2, < outer, straight-hairy; outer bracts 2, +- 1 mm, +- round, surrounding ovary, densely glandular-hairy. Flower: corolla 10--13 mm, hairy adaxially, white to pink.
Ecology: Moist shady places in conifer forest; Elevation: 200--2600 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, n SNH, MP; Distribution Outside California: to northern Alaska. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug
Unabridged Synonyms: Linnaea borealis L. subsp. americana (Forbes) Hultén ex R.T. Clausen
eFlora Treatment Author: Charles D. Bell & Lauramay T. Dempster
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botanical illustration including Linnaea borealis var. longiflora


Citation for this treatment: Charles D. Bell & Lauramay T. Dempster 2017. Linnaea borealis var. longiflora, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 30, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 30, 2017.

Geographic subdivisions for Linnaea borealis var. longiflora:
NW, CaR, n SNH, MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.