Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon

Juncus phaeocephalus var. paniculatus

Higher Taxonomy
Family: JuncaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: RUSH FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb generally from rhizomes. Stem: round or flat. Leaf: generally basal; sheath margins fused, or overlapping and generally with 2 ear-like extensions at blade junction; blade round, flat, or vestigial, glabrous or margin hairy. Inflorescence: head-like clusters or flowers 1, variously arranged; bracts subtending inflorescence 2, generally leaf-like; bracts subtending inflorescence branches 1--2, reduced; bractlets subtending flowers generally 1--2, generally translucent. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals and petals similar, persistent, scale-like, green to brown or +- purple-black; stamens generally 3 or 6, anthers linear, persistent; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 1 or 3, placentas 1 and basal or 3 and axile or parietal, stigmas generally > style. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal. Seed: 3--many, generally with white appendages on 1 or both ends.
Genera In Family: 7 genera, 440 species: temperate, arctic, and tropical mountains. Note: Flowers late spring to early fall.
eFlora Treatment Author: Peter F. Zika, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: JuncusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: RUSH
Habit: Rhizome 0 or generally with scale-like leaves. Stem: generally cylindric or flat. Leaf: blade well developed and cylindric or flat, occasionally closely resembling stem, or reduced to small point; crosswalls generally present; appendages generally present at blade-sheath junction. Inflorescence: generally terminal, appearing lateral when pushed aside by inflorescence bract; bractlets 0--2. Flower: sepals, petals similar; stamens generally 3 or 6(2); pistil 1, ovary chambers 1--3, placentas axile or parietal, stigmas generally 3(2). Seed: many.
Species In Genus: 315 species: worldwide, especially northern hemisphere. Etymology: (Latin: to join or bind, from use of stems) Note: All species with leaf crosswalls may have leaves, stems swollen, deformed by sucking insects. Fruiting time given instead of flowering time. Plants included in TJM2 as Juncus brachyphyllus now treated in California as a new species, Juncus trilocularis (Zika 2012 Rhodora 114:309--329); Juncus bulbosus, Juncus dichotomus, and Juncus elliottii, only noted as naturalized in TJM2, now fully treated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Peter F. Zika
Reference: [Ertter 1986 Mem New York Bot Gard 39:1--90]
Species: Juncus phaeocephalusView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb 10--50 cm, forming dense stands; rhizome stout, creeping. Stem: flat. Leaf: bases overlapping; sheath appendages indistinct; blade flat, edge toward stem, generally > stem, 1.5--4 mm wide, crosswalls generally incomplete, tip fine-pointed. Inflorescence: lowest bract +- > lowest cluster; clusters 1--many, > 8-flowered. Flower: perianth parts 3--5 mm, +- equal, widely lanceolate, dark brown to dark purple or +- black, shiny; stamens 6, filaments << anthers, anthers conspicuous; stigmas long-exserted. Fruit: body <= perianth; beak long-tapered, occasionally exceeding perianth. Seed: 0.5--0.7 mm, narrowly ovoid.
Note: Varieties weakly defined, need study.
Juncus phaeocephalus var. paniculatus Engelm.
Inflorescence: clusters generally > 10, generally 5--10 mm wide, few-flowered.
Ecology: Wet places, coastal, inland; Elevation: < 2200 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, s ScV, CCo, SnFrB, SCo, SnBr, PR. Fruiting Time: Jun--Sep Note: Relationship to Juncus macrandrus needs study.
Jepson eFlora Author: Peter F. Zika
Reference: [Ertter 1986 Mem New York Bot Gard 39:1--90]
Jepson Online Interchange

Previous taxon: Juncus phaeocephalus
Next taxon: Juncus phaeocephalus var. phaeocephalus

Name Search


Citation for this treatment: Peter F. Zika 2015, Juncus phaeocephalus var. paniculatus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 3,, accessed on December 12, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 12, 2018.

Juncus phaeocephalus var. paniculatus
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Juncus phaeocephalus var. paniculatus
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse
Juncus phaeocephalus var. paniculatus
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse

More photos of Juncus phaeocephalus var. paniculatus in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Juncus phaeocephalus var. paniculatus:
NCo, s ScV, CCo, SnFrB, SCo, SnBr, PR.
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.