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Elymus elymoides var. brevifolius

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PoaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: ElymusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Plant from rhizomes. Stem: 6.5--13 dm, sparsely to densely hairy below inflorescence. Leaf: sheath glabrous or hairy; auricles to 1 mm; ligule 0.4--1.2 mm; blade < 9 mm wide, prominently ribbed. Inflorescence: 7--32 cm; spikelets 1--2 per node, sometimes short-stalked. Spikelet: glumes 8--28 mm, lanceolate, often +- purple, sometimes glaucous; base flat, tapered, awn to 4 mm; florets 2--6; lemma base glabrous, scabrous to hairy near tip; anthers 3.3--7.5 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=28,42.
Note: A sterile hybrid between Elymus mollis and Elymus triticoides.
Species: Elymus elymoidesView Description 

Habit: Plant cespitose, often glaucous. Stem: erect to decumbent, 1--6.5(8) dm. Leaf: sheath glabrous to densely long-white-hairy; auricles 0--1 mm; ligule < 1 mm; blade (1)2--4(6) mm wide, flat, folded, or rolled. Inflorescence: 2.5--20 cm (except awns), axis breaking apart with age; internodes 3--10 mm; spikelets 2(3) per node. Spikelet: 10--20 mm; glumes 15--125 mm, awn-like, base narrow, thick, generally spreading, entire or split into 2--3 unequal divisions; florets 2--4(5); lemma 6--12 mm, awn 15--120 mm, spreading; palea 6--11 mm, veins sometimes extended as bristles; anthers +- 2 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=28.
Note: Elymus elymoides subsp. hordeoides (Suksd.) Barkworth doubtfully naturalized. If recognized taxonomically: sporadic hybrids with Elymus trachycaulus assignable to Elymus ×saundersii Vasey (Siskiyou, Modoc cos. to Monterey, Tulare cos.); widespread hybrids with Elymus glaucus assignable to Elymus ×hansenii Scribn.; hybrids with Elymus spicatus assignable to Elymus ×saxicolaPseudelymus saxicola (Scribn. & J.G. Sm.) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey], rarely collected.
Unabridged Note: Elymus elymoides subsp. hordeoides (Suksd.) Barkworth reported from Modoc and Siskiyou cos., but not been collected in recent years and doubtfully naturalized. If recognized taxonomically: hybrids with Elymus trachycaulus assignable to Elymus ×saundersii Vasey [Agropyron saundersii (Vasey) Hitchc.], which occurs sporadically from Siskiyou and Modoc cos. southern to Monterey and Tulare cos.; widespread hybrids with Elymus glaucus assignable to Elymus ×hansenii Scribn. [Sitanion hansenii (Scribn.) J.G. Sm.]; hybrids with Elymus spicatus assignable to Elymus ×saxicola Scribn. & J.G. Sm. [Agropyron saxicola (Scribn. & J.G. Sm.) Piper; × Pseudelymus saxicola (Scribn. & J.G. Sm.) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey], which is rarely collected and questionably persisting. Intergrades with Elymus multisetus.

Elymus elymoides var. brevifolius (J.G. Sm.) Dorn
Spikelet: glumes entire, awn 50--125 mm; lowest floret fertile, not glume-like; fertile florets 1+; lemma awn 50--105 mm.
Ecology: Dry, open areas; Elevation: 450--3500 m. Bioregional Distribution: SnBr, PR, MP, W&I, DMoj; Distribution Outside California: to Canada, Great Plains, northern Mexico. Flowering Time: Jul--Aug
Synonyms: Elymus elymoides subsp. brevifolius (J.G. Sm.) Barkworth; Sitanion longifolium J.G. Sm.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
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Citation for this treatment: James P. Smith, Jr. Elymus elymoides var. brevifolius, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on November 19, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on November 19, 2017.

Geographic subdivisions for Elymus elymoides var. brevifolius:
SnBr, PR, MP, W&I, DMoj;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.