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Cycladenia humilis var. humilis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ApocynaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree, often vine; sap generally milky. Leaf: simple, alternate, opposite, subwhorled to whorled, entire; stipules 0 or small, finger-like. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, cyme, generally umbel- or raceme-like, or flowers 1--2. Flower: bisexual, radial; perianth parts, especially petals, overlapped, twisted to right or left, at least in bud; sepals generally 5, fused at base, often reflexed, persistent; petals generally 5, fused in basal +- 1/2; stamens generally 5, attached to corolla tube or throat, alternate lobes, free or fused to form filament column and anther head, filament column then generally with 5 free or fused, +- elaborate appendages abaxially, pollen +- free or removed in pairs of pollinia; nectaries 0 or near ovaries, then 2 or 5[10], or in stigmatic chambers; ovaries 2, superior or +- so, free [fused]; style tips, stigmas generally fused into massive pistil head. Fruit: 1--2 follicles, (capsule), [berry, drupe]. Seed: many, often with tuft of hairs at 1 or both ends.
Genera In Family: 200--450 genera, 3000--5000 species: all continents, especially tropics, subtropical South America, southern Africa; many ornamental (including Asclepias, Hoya, Nerium, Plumeria, Stapelia); cardiac glycosides, produced by some members formerly treated in Asclepiadaceae, used as arrow poisons, in medicine to control heart function, and by various insects for defense. Note: Asclepiadaceae ("asclepiads"), although monophyletic, included in Apocynaceae because otherwise the latter is paraphyletic. Complexity of floral structure, variation in asclepiads arguably greatest among all angiosperms. Pattern of carpel fusion (carpels free in ovule-bearing region, fused above), present +- throughout Apocynaceae (in broad sense), nearly unknown in other angiosperms. Base chromosome number generally 11; abundance of latex, generally small size of chromosomes evidently have impeded cytological investigations.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: CycladeniaView Description 

Species In Genus: 1 sp.: California. Etymology: (Greek: ring gland, from nectary)
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti
Reference: Sipes & Wolf 1997 Amer J Bot 84:401--409
Species: Cycladenia humilisView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb, +- erect, 6--12 cm, fleshy (including large root), herbage tomentose to generally glabrous, glaucous. Leaf: opposite, 2--5 pairs, < 9 cm; petiole < to > blade; blade ovate or +- round, base +- truncate to tapered. Inflorescence: cyme, 2--6-flowered. Flower: > 15 mm; calyx lobes narrow-triangular; corolla 15--20 mm, funnel-shaped, with 5 +- round appendages behind anthers, rose-purple, lobes obovate or round, margins wavy; filaments free, appearing to be attached at base of corolla tube but fused to it up to level of stigma, unappendaged, hairy, anthers forming cone around but free from stigma, each partly sterile, sharply sagittate, pollen +- free; nectaries 5, fused into a 5-lobed disk around but not exceeding ovaries; style thread-like; stigma skirted at base. Fruit: 3--5 cm. Seed: with tuft of long hairs at 1 end. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Note: Varieties possibly untenable, merit study.
Unabridged Note: Given that hairiness within Cycladenia humilis var. humilis appears to be governed by a single gene (thus reducing Cycladenia humilis var. tomentosa to synonymy under Cycladenia humilis var. humilis), doubt is cast on the hair characters separating Cycladenia humilis var. humilis from Cycladenia humilis var. venusta and Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii as well; given that corolla lobe length in Cycladenia humilis var. humilis overlaps that in Cycladenia humilis var. venusta and Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii, doubt is cast on the characters separating these varieties as well. Therefore, the entire group merits further study.

Cycladenia humilis Benth. var. humilis
Habit: Plant generally glabrous, glaucous, less often dense-tomentose. Flower: perianth glabrous (tomentose) abaxially; corolla glabrous or papillate adaxially, lobes (5)7--9(11) mm.
Ecology: Loose gravel or sand, talus slopes, often with Pinus ponderosa; Elevation: 1200--2800 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoRH, CaRH, n SNH (Plumas, Sierra cos.), SCoRO (Santa Lucia Range). Flowering Time: Apr--Aug
Synonyms: Cycladenia humilis var. tomentosa (Gray) Gray;
Unabridged Note: Tomentose (assignable to Cycladenia humilis var. tomentosa) and glabrous plants intermixed within populations without intergrading and without showing other differences, suggesting hairiness is governed by a single gene (e.g., JEPS28583, from Lassen Volcanic National Park, with "single gene difference?", in reference to hairiness, on collection label). venusta.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti
Reference: Sipes & Wolf 1997 Amer J Bot 84:401--409
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botanical illustration including Cycladenia humilis var. humilis


Citation for this treatment: Thomas J. Rosatti 2012, Cycladenia humilis var. humilis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 16, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 16, 2018.

Cycladenia humilis var. humilis
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Cycladenia humilis var. humilis
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Cycladenia humilis var. humilis
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© 2016 Neal Kramer
Cycladenia humilis var. humilis
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© 2005 Robert E. Preston, Ph.D.
Cycladenia humilis var. humilis
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© 2007 Aaron Schusteff
Cycladenia humilis var. humilis
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© 2000 John Game

More photos of Cycladenia humilis var. humilis in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Cycladenia humilis var. humilis:
KR, NCoRH, CaRH, n SNH (Plumas, Sierra cos.), SCoRO (Santa Lucia Range).
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.