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Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
BOLANDER'S WATER-HEMLOCK

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CARROT FAMILY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally +- scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally +- ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a +- conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally +- persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1--several per interval between ribs.
Genera In Family: 300 genera, 3000 species: +- worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Note: Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif.
eFlora Treatment Author: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: CicutaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: WATER-HEMLOCK
Habit: Perennial herb, glabrous; rhizome internally chambered, sap becoming +- red-brown in air, fibrous- or tuberous-rooted. Stem: erect, hollow. Leaf: blade oblong to triangular-ovate, 1--3-pinnate or ternate-pinnate, leaflets linear to lance-ovate, serrate or irregularly cut. Inflorescence: umbels compound; bracts generally 0; bractlets generally inconspicuous; rays, pedicels many, spreading. Flower: calyx lobes minute; petals wide, white, tips narrowed. Fruit: ovoid to spheric, +- compressed side-to-side; ribs low, corky, occasionally unequally spaced; oil tube 1 per rib-interval; fruit axis divided to base. Seed: face flat or concave.
Species In Genus: +- 4 species: Eurasia, North America. Etymology: (Ancient Latin name) Toxicity: TOXIC: the most lethally toxic native plant species.
Unabridged Note: Both species below contain cicutoxin, a strong poison; many livestock and human deaths recorded.
Species: Cicuta maculataView Description 

Habit: Plant 10--15 dm. Leaf: 1--4 dm, ovate to triangular-ovate, 1--2-pinnate; leaflets 2--10 cm, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, coarsely to sparsely serrate, areas defined by major veinlets on abaxial surface small, generally +- circular or +- square, less often +- elongate. Inflorescence: umbels compound, terminal and lateral; peduncles 2.5--12 cm; rays 15--30, 2--4.5 cm; pedicels 15--30, 2--10 mm. Fruit: 3--4 mm, generally ovate; rib width generally <= intervals between. Chromosomes: 2n=22.
Note: Varieties best distinguishable in California by habitat, geography. Other varieties in eastern North America.

Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi (S. Watson) G.A. Mulligan
NATIVE
Leaf: generally 2-pinnate. Flower: styles generally > 1 mm.
Ecology: Coastal wetlands; Elevation: < 200 m. Bioregional Distribution: s ScV (Suisun marshes), CCo, SCo. Flowering Time: Jul--Sep
eFlora Treatment Author: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
Next taxon: Conioselinum

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Citation for this treatment: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax 2016. Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=56538, accessed on April 30, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on April 30, 2016.


Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
click for enlargement
© 2013 Steve Matson
Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
click for enlargement
© 2013 Steve Matson
Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
click for enlargement
© 2013 Steve Matson
Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
click for enlargement
© 2013 Steve Matson

More photos of Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi:
s ScV (Suisun marshes), CCo, SCo.
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.