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Vascular Plants of California
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Tonestus lyallii

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Bahia in Hymenothrix; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Picradeniopsis; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Amauriopsis in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Hymenothrix; Arida in Leucosyris; Bahia in Picradeniopsis.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: TonestusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb from taproot, branched caudex, or short rhizome, glandular, sometimes mat-forming. Stem: erect, unbranched, glabrous or stalked-glandular, sometimes with withered, persistent leaf bases. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate, basal persistent, cauline reduced distally, oblanceolate, 1--3-veined, generally stalked-glandular. Inflorescence: heads radiate, 1--4 per stem in open cluster; involucre bell-shaped; phyllaries in 3--4 +- equal series, lanceolate, 1-veined, outer grading into distal leaves; receptacle convex, pitted, epaleate. Ray Flower: 10--25; ray <= 12 mm, yellow. Disk Flower: 25--65; corolla flaring slightly, yellow; anther tip slender, acute, appendage length 2--4 × width; style tips acute, appendage +- equal or > stigmatic portion. Fruit: narrowly oblong to linear, +- cylindric, fusiform, or compressed, glabrous or hairy; pappus of many +- white bristles in 1 series.
Species In Genus: +- 4--5 species: western North America. Etymology: (Anagram of Stenotus)
eFlora Treatment Author: Lowell E. Urbatsch
Reference: Morse 2006 FNANM 20:181--184; Nesom & Morgan 1990 Phytologia 68:174--180
Unabridged Reference: Urbatsch et al. 2006 FNANM 20:177--181
Tonestus lyallii (A. Gray) A. Nelson
Habit: Loosely cespitose with branched caudices, taproots poorly developed. Stem: 4--15 cm. Leaf: <= 8.5 cm, entire. Inflorescence: involucre 8--11 mm; phyllaries green to +- red, +- papery to leaf-like. Ray Flower: 11--25. Disk Flower: 27--56; corolla 5.8--8.5 mm. Fruit: 2.5--5.5 mm, glabrous or sparsely hairy; pappus = disk corolla. Chromosomes: 2n=18.
Ecology: Meadows, barrens, rocky sites; Elevation: 1500--2800 m. Bioregional Distribution: c KR (Trinity Alps); Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado. Flowering Time: Jul--Aug
Synonyms: Haplopappus lyallii A. Gray
Jepson eFlora Author: Lowell E. Urbatsch
Reference: Morse 2006 FNANM 20:181--184; Nesom & Morgan 1990 Phytologia 68:174--180
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Botanical illustration including Tonestus lyallii

botanical illustration including Tonestus lyallii


Citation for this treatment: Lowell E. Urbatsch 2012, Tonestus lyallii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 15, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 15, 2019.

No expert verified images found for Tonestus lyallii.

Geographic subdivisions for Tonestus lyallii:
c KR (Trinity Alps)
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map of distribution 1
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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.