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Vascular Plants of California
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Alopecurus aequalis var. aequalis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: AlopecurusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: FOXTAIL
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, cespitose or from stolons. Stem: decumbent to erect, 1--8 dm; nodes visible, brown. Leaf: ligule 1--6 mm, membranous, truncate to acute, generally scabrous; blade flat, glabrous or scabrous. Inflorescence: panicle-like, generally cylindric, dense; branches short. Spikelet: +- laterally compressed, breaking below glumes, falling as 1 unit; glumes +- equal, generally = spikelet, membranous, generally keeled, keel and lateral veins generally stiff- or appressed-hairy, margins free or fused near base, tip obtuse, acute, or short-awned, 3-veined; floret 1; lemma membranous, margins keeled, sometimes fused near base, truncate to acute, 3--5-veined, awned on back below middle, awn straight or abruptly bent generally at lemma tip; palea generally 0; anthers 0.5--4 mm. Fruit: glabrous.
Species In Genus: 36 species: temperate North America, Eurasia. Etymology: (Greek: fox tail)
eFlora Treatment Author: William J. Crins
Reference: Crins 2007 FNANM 24:780--788
Unabridged Reference: Rubtzoff 1961 Leafl W Bot 9:165--180
Species: Alopecurus aequalisView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb. Stem: 0.9--4.7 dm. Leaf: ligule 2--5.5 mm; blade 2.5--10 cm, 1--5(8) mm wide. Inflorescence: 1--7.5 cm, 3--9 mm wide. Spikelet: lemma awn straight; anthers 0.5--1 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=14.

Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. var. aequalis
Inflorescence: 3--6 mm wide. Spikelet: glumes 1.8--3 mm; lemma awn exceeding lemma body by < 1 mm; anthers 0.5--0.9 mm.
Ecology: Wet meadows, shores; Elevation: 50--3500 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaRH, SN (exc Teh), SnJV, TR, PR, GB (exc W&I); Distribution Outside California: to subarctic, eastern North America, Eurasia. Flowering Time: May--Jul Note: Plants from high elevations in SNH and SNE also may have long awns, perhaps representing hybrids with Alopecurus geniculatus.
Synonyms: Alopecurus aristulatus Michx.;
Jepson eFlora Author: William J. Crins
Reference: Crins 2007 FNANM 24:780--788
Unabridged Reference: Rubtzoff 1961 Leafl W Bot 9:165--180
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Botanical illustration including Alopecurus aequalis var. aequalis

botanical illustration including Alopecurus aequalis var. aequalis


Citation for this treatment: William J. Crins 2012, Alopecurus aequalis var. aequalis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 13, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 13, 2018.

No expert verified images found for Alopecurus aequalis var. aequalis.

Geographic subdivisions for Alopecurus aequalis var. aequalis:
NW, CaRH, SN (exc Teh), SnJV, TR, PR, GB (exc W&I);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.