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Viola purpurea subsp. venosa
PURPLE-MARKED YELLOW VIOLET

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Common Name: VIOLET FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).
Species: Viola purpureaView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb. Stem: prostrate to erect, generally several, clustered on 1--several subterranean caudices from woody rhizome. Leaf: simple, base tapered or truncate to cordate, often oblique; basal 1--6 per caudex, stipule oblong, fused to, forming 2 membranous wings on petiole, entire or few-toothed, the tip of each wing free, deltate or lanceolate, generally fringed, blade 0.8--5.3 cm, 0.4--4.1 cm wide, lanceolate to round; cauline petiole 0.3--12.3 cm, blade 0.3--4.8 cm, 0.3--5 cm wide, ovate, oblong, elliptic, triangular, diamond-shaped or lanceolate, crenate, serrate or dentate with 3--4(5) prominent pointed or rounded lobes per side, shallowly dentate, sharp angled, or entire, occasionally wavy. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 1--17 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, ciliate or not; petals deep lemon-yellow, upper 2, sometimes lateral 2 red- to purple-brown abaxially, lower 3 veined dark brown, lateral 2 bearded with club-shaped hairs, lowest petal 6--16 mm. Fruit: 4--12 mm, ovoid to +- spheric, puberulent. Seed: 2.1--3.1 mm, light to dark brown or gray, mottled brown. Chromosomes: 2n=12,24.
Note: Subspecies variable, intergrade, need study; no additional subspecies.
Unabridged Note: Subspecies variable, intergrade, need study; no additional subspecies; plants in shade often produce larger leaves, longer stems.

Viola purpurea subsp. venosa (S. Watson) M.S. Baker & J.C. Clausen
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 3--8.5(12) cm, +- glabrous to puberulent. Stem: mostly buried, decumbent or erect, generally short, not much elongated by end of season. Leaf: tip acute to obtuse; basal petiole 5--10.3 cm, blade 0.8--2.1 cm, 0.5--3.6 cm wide, ovate to +- round, coarsely serrate or generally irregularly dentate or crenate with 2--4 rounded lobes per side, often fleshy, +- glabrous adaxially, occasionally shiny, purple-tinted, puberulent abaxially, major veins prominent adaxially, base tapered, oblique or not, truncate, or +- cordate; cauline petiole 0.8--6 cm, blade 0.9--2.3 cm, 0.6--1.6 cm wide, lanceolate to ovate, coarsely crenate or dentate, base tapered or oblique. Inflorescence: peduncle 2.9--7 cm. Flower: lowest petal 6--14 mm. Fruit: 4--5.5 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=12.
Ecology: Many habitats, substrates, including pine forest, desert, gravelly plains, edges of wet meadows, grassy or rocky slopes, shaded or exposed areas, dry to moist soil, near snowdrifts; Elevation: 1300--3350 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCoRH, NCoRI, SnGb, GB, DMtns (Panamint Range); Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona. Flowering Time: Apr--Sep Note: Most widely ranging member of sp.
Synonyms: Viola aurea Kellogg var. venosa (S. Watson) S. Watson; Viola purpurea subsp. atriplicifolia M.S. Baker & J.C. Clausen, in part; Viola purpurea subsp. geophyta M.S. Baker & J.C. Clausen; Viola venosa (S. Watson) Rydb.; Viola nuttallii Pursh var. venosa S. Watson
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
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Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2016. Viola purpurea subsp. venosa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=53411, accessed on May 02, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 02, 2016.


Viola purpurea subsp. venosa
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© 2010 Gary A. Monroe
Viola purpurea subsp. venosa
click for enlargement
© 2010 Gary A. Monroe
Viola purpurea subsp. venosa
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© 2011 Christopher L. Christie
Viola purpurea subsp. venosa
click for enlargement
© 2010 Gary A. Monroe
Viola purpurea subsp. venosa
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© 2006 James M. Andre
Viola purpurea subsp. venosa
click for enlargement
© 2010 Gary A. Monroe

More photos of Viola purpurea subsp. venosa in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Viola purpurea subsp. venosa:
NCoRH, NCoRI, SnGb, GB, DMtns (Panamint Range);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.