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Viola purpurea subsp. aurea
GOLDEN VIOLET

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Common Name: VIOLET FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).
Species: Viola purpureaView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb. Stem: prostrate to erect, generally several, clustered on 1--several subterranean caudices from woody rhizome. Leaf: simple, base tapered or truncate to cordate, often oblique; basal 1--6 per caudex, stipule oblong, fused to, forming 2 membranous wings on petiole, entire or few-toothed, the tip of each wing free, deltate or lanceolate, generally fringed, blade 0.8--5.3 cm, 0.4--4.1 cm wide, lanceolate to round; cauline petiole 0.3--12.3 cm, blade 0.3--4.8 cm, 0.3--5 cm wide, ovate, oblong, elliptic, triangular, diamond-shaped or lanceolate, crenate, serrate or dentate with 3--4(5) prominent pointed or rounded lobes per side, shallowly dentate, sharp angled, or entire, occasionally wavy. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 1--17 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, ciliate or not; petals deep lemon-yellow, upper 2, sometimes lateral 2 red- to purple-brown abaxially, lower 3 veined dark brown, lateral 2 bearded with club-shaped hairs, lowest petal 6--16 mm. Fruit: 4--12 mm, ovoid to +- spheric, puberulent. Seed: 2.1--3.1 mm, light to dark brown or gray, mottled brown. Chromosomes: 2n=12,24.
Note: Subspecies variable, intergrade, need study; no additional subspecies.
Unabridged Note: Subspecies variable, intergrade, need study; no additional subspecies; plants in shade often produce larger leaves, longer stems.

Viola purpurea subsp. aurea (Kellogg) J.C. Clausen
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 4--12 cm, canescent to tomentose. Stem: mostly buried, decumbent or erect, generally short, not much elongated by end of season. Leaf: tip acute or obtuse; basal petiole 4.6--9.5 cm, blade 1.1--5 cm, 1--3.4 cm wide, oblong, ovate, or round, crenate to shallowly, irregularly serrate, base tapered, oblique, or truncate; cauline petiole 1.5--5.5 cm, blade 1.3--3.7 cm, 0.7--2 cm wide, lance-ovate to ovate, crenate to serrate, base tapered to truncate. Inflorescence: peduncle 2.4--10.5 cm. Flower: lowest petal 8--13 mm. Fruit: 4--7 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=12.
Ecology: Pinyon/juniper woodland, sagebrush, sandy slopes; Elevation: 1000--2300 m. Bioregional Distribution: SNE, DMoj; Distribution Outside California: western Nevada. Flowering Time: Apr--Jun
Synonyms: Viola aurea Kellogg; Viola purpurea var. aurea (Kellogg) M.S. Baker ex Jeps.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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botanical illustration including Viola purpurea subsp. aurea

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Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2016. Viola purpurea subsp. aurea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=53403, accessed on February 14, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 14, 2016.


Viola purpurea subsp. aurea
click for enlargement
© 2012 Steve Matson
Viola purpurea subsp. aurea
click for enlargement
© 2012 Steve Matson
Viola purpurea subsp. aurea
click for enlargement
© 2012 Steve Matson
Viola purpurea subsp. aurea
click for enlargement
© 2012 Steve Matson
Viola purpurea subsp. aurea
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Viola purpurea subsp. aurea
click for enlargement
© 2012 Steve Matson

More photos of Viola purpurea subsp. aurea in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Viola purpurea subsp. aurea:
SNE, DMoj;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.