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Viola praemorsa subsp. praemorsa
ASTORIA VIOLET, YELLOW MONTANE VIOLET

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Common Name: VIOLET FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).
Species: Viola praemorsaView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb 7.5--30 cm, glabrous to densely puberulent. Stem: prostrate to erect, generally several, clustered on 1--several subterranean caudices from woody rhizome. Leaf: simple; basal 1--5 per caudex, petiole 4.3--19.2 cm, blade 2.3--8.5 cm, 1.4--3.7 cm wide, elliptic or ovate, entire, wavy, or generally irregularly crenate to serrate, base tapered, often oblique to +- truncate, tip acute or obtuse; cauline blade 2.6--5.8 cm, 1.3--3.5 cm wide, like basal. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 2.7--26 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, ciliate or not; petals deep lemon-yellow, upper 2, sometimes lateral 2 maroon or +- brown abaxially, lower 3 veined brown-purple, lateral 2 bearded with cylindric hairs, lowest 12--20 mm. Fruit: 6--12 mm, elliptic to oblong, glabrous to minutely puberulent. Seed: 2--3 mm, medium to dark brown, +- 1/3 length covered by outgrowth. Chromosomes: 2n=36,48.
Note: Study needed; 1 other subsp., +- northwestern United States.
Unabridged Note: Complex; study needed; hybrids obscure subspecies; 1 other subsp., Idaho, Montana, Utah, Washington, Wyoming.

Viola praemorsa NULL subsp. praemorsa
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 7.5--21 cm. Leaf: basal and cauline, blade generally ovate, base generally +- truncate; basal 2.3--6.7 cm, not much longer than wide, +- crenate or serrate, wavy, or entire; cauline blade 1.3--3 cm wide. Inflorescence: peduncle 5.5--26 cm. Seed: dark brown. Chromosomes: 2n=36.
Ecology: Generally in vernally moist soil, slopes, meadows, conifer forest, sagebrush; Elevation: 122--2440 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, n&c SNH, Wrn; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Alberta, Utah. Flowering Time: Mar--Jul
Synonyms: Viola praemorsa Douglas ex Lindl. subsp. praemorsa; Viola nuttallii Pursh subsp. praemorsa (Douglas ex Lindl.) Piper; Viola nuttallii Pursh var. praemorsa (Douglas ex Lindl.) S. Watson
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
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botanical illustration including Viola praemorsa subsp. praemorsa

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Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2016. Viola praemorsa subsp. praemorsa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=53398, accessed on December 03, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on December 03, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Viola praemorsa subsp. praemorsa:
NW, CaR, n&c SNH, Wrn;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.