Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon
Viola praemorsa subsp. linguifolia

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Common Name: VIOLET FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).
Species: Viola praemorsaView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb 7.5--30 cm, glabrous to densely puberulent. Stem: prostrate to erect, generally several, clustered on 1--several subterranean caudices from woody rhizome. Leaf: simple; basal 1--5 per caudex, petiole 4.3--19.2 cm, blade 2.3--8.5 cm, 1.4--3.7 cm wide, elliptic or ovate, entire, wavy, or generally irregularly crenate to serrate, base tapered, often oblique to +- truncate, tip acute or obtuse; cauline blade 2.6--5.8 cm, 1.3--3.5 cm wide, like basal. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 2.7--26 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, ciliate or not; petals deep lemon-yellow, upper 2, sometimes lateral 2 maroon or +- brown abaxially, lower 3 veined brown-purple, lateral 2 bearded with cylindric hairs, lowest 12--20 mm. Fruit: 6--12 mm, elliptic to oblong, glabrous to minutely puberulent. Seed: 2--3 mm, medium to dark brown, +- 1/3 length covered by outgrowth. Chromosomes: 2n=36,48.
Note: Study needed; 1 other subsp., +- northwestern United States.
Unabridged Note: Complex; study needed; hybrids obscure subspecies; 1 other subsp., Idaho, Montana, Utah, Washington, Wyoming.

Viola praemorsa subsp. linguifolia (Nutt.) M.S. Baker & J.C. Clausen
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 11--30 cm. Leaf: basal and cauline, blade generally elliptic, base generally tapered, often oblique; basal 5--8.5 cm, much longer than wide, +- entire, +- crenate, serrate, wavy, or generally irregularly toothed; cauline 1.4--3.5 cm wide. Inflorescence: peduncle 2.7--21 cm. Seed: medium to red-brown. Chromosomes: 2n=36,48.
Ecology: Generally in vernally moist soil, slopes, meadows, forest; Elevation: 750--2400 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, n&c SNH, MP; Distribution Outside California: to Washington, Alberta, Wyoming, to Colorado. Flowering Time: May--Aug
Synonyms: Viola linguifolia Nutt.; Viola nuttallii Pursh var. linguifolia (Nutt.) Piper; Viola praemorsa Douglas ex Lindl. subsp. arida M.S. Baker; Viola praemorsa subsp. major (Hook.) M.S. Baker; Viola praemorsa subsp. oregona M.S. Baker
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Jepson Online Interchange

Previous taxon: Viola praemorsa
Next taxon: Viola praemorsa subsp. praemorsa

Name Search
botanical illustration including Viola praemorsa subsp. linguifolia

Contact/Feedback

Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2016. Viola praemorsa subsp. linguifolia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=53395, accessed on May 02, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 02, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Viola praemorsa subsp. linguifolia:
NW, CaR, n&c SNH, MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.