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Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).
Species: Viola pinetorumView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb 4.5--22 cm, glabrous to puberulent, canescent, or gray-tomentose. Stem: prostrate to erect, generally several, clustered on 1--several subterranean caudices from woody rhizome. Leaf: simple; basal 1--4 per caudex, petiole 2.3--9.5 cm, blade 1.3--5 cm, 0.3--2.5 cm wide, linear to elliptic or ovate to lance-elliptic, or oblanceolate to obovate, thin or not, jagged to irregularly serrate or dentate, occasionally entire, sometimes wavy, base long-tapered or wedge-shaped, tip acute; cauline petiole 0.9--8.3 cm, blade 0.3--1.4 cm wide, +- like basal in shape. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 2.9--11.5 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, not ciliate; petals deep lemon-yellow, upper 2 red- to purple-brown abaxially, lower 3 veined dark brown, lateral 2 bearded with cylindric hairs, lowest 5--12 mm. Fruit: 3.5--7 mm, ovoid, puberulent. Seed: 2--3.5 mm, medium to dark brown. Chromosomes: 2n=12.

Viola pinetorum Greene subsp. pinetorum
Habit: Plant 6.5--22 cm, glabrous to generally puberulent, canescent. Stem: generally not buried, spreading to erect. Leaf: basal petiole 3.2--9.5 cm, blade 1.3--5 cm, 0.7--2.5 cm wide, linear to ovate or lance-elliptic, jagged or irregularly serrate or dentate, occasionally entire, puberulent to canescent, generally purple-tinted abaxially; cauline petiole to 8.3 cm, blade 3.5--9.6 cm, 0.3--1.4 cm wide, serrate or dentate with 2--4 short projections per side to +- entire. Inflorescence: peduncle 3.4--11.5 cm. Flower: lowest petal 6--12 mm.
Ecology: Vernally moist soil, often under conifers; Elevation: 1400--3100 m. Bioregional Distribution: CaR, SN, WTR, SnBr, SnJt. Flowering Time: Late May--late Jul
Synonyms: Viola pinetorum var. pinetorum; Viola purpurea Kellogg subsp. mesophyta M.S. Baker & J.C. Clausen; Viola purpurea var. pinetorum (Greene) Greene; Viola purpurea subsp. xerophyta M.S. Baker & J.C. Clausen, in part
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
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Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2016. Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 06, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 06, 2016.

Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum
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© 2004 George W. Hartwell
Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum
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© 2004 George W. Hartwell
Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum
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© 2013 Neal Kramer
Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum
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© 2013 Neal Kramer
Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum
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© 2010 Barry Breckling

More photos of Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum:
CaR, SN, WTR, SnBr, SnJt.
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.