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Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).
Species: Viola pinetorumView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb 4.5--22 cm, glabrous to puberulent, canescent, or gray-tomentose. Stem: prostrate to erect, generally several, clustered on 1--several subterranean caudices from woody rhizome. Leaf: simple; basal 1--4 per caudex, petiole 2.3--9.5 cm, blade 1.3--5 cm, 0.3--2.5 cm wide, linear to elliptic or ovate to lance-elliptic, or oblanceolate to obovate, thin or not, jagged to irregularly serrate or dentate, occasionally entire, sometimes wavy, base long-tapered or wedge-shaped, tip acute; cauline petiole 0.9--8.3 cm, blade 0.3--1.4 cm wide, +- like basal in shape. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 2.9--11.5 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, not ciliate; petals deep lemon-yellow, upper 2 red- to purple-brown abaxially, lower 3 veined dark brown, lateral 2 bearded with cylindric hairs, lowest 5--12 mm. Fruit: 3.5--7 mm, ovoid, puberulent. Seed: 2--3.5 mm, medium to dark brown. Chromosomes: 2n=12.

Viola pinetorum Greene subsp. pinetorum
Habit: Plant 6.5--22 cm, glabrous to generally puberulent, canescent. Stem: generally not buried, spreading to erect. Leaf: basal petiole 3.2--9.5 cm, blade 1.3--5 cm, 0.7--2.5 cm wide, linear to ovate or lance-elliptic, jagged or irregularly serrate or dentate, occasionally entire, puberulent to canescent, generally purple-tinted abaxially; cauline petiole to 8.3 cm, blade 3.5--9.6 cm, 0.3--1.4 cm wide, serrate or dentate with 2--4 short projections per side to +- entire. Inflorescence: peduncle 3.4--11.5 cm. Flower: lowest petal 6--12 mm.
Ecology: Vernally moist soil, often under conifers; Elevation: 1400--3100 m. Bioregional Distribution: CaR, SN, WTR, SnBr, SnJt. Flowering Time: Late May--late Jul
Synonyms: Viola pinetorum var. pinetorum; Viola purpurea Kellogg subsp. mesophyta M.S. Baker & J.C. Clausen; Viola purpurea var. pinetorum (Greene) Greene; Viola purpurea subsp. xerophyta M.S. Baker & J.C. Clausen, in part
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
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Previous taxon: Viola pinetorum subsp. grisea
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Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2017. Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 21, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 21, 2017.

Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum
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© 2013 Neal Kramer
Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum
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© 2004 George W. Hartwell
Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum
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© 2003 Christopher L. Christie

More photos of Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Viola pinetorum subsp. pinetorum:
CaR, SN, WTR, SnBr, SnJt.
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.