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Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis
AMERICAN STINGING NETTLE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: UrticaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: NETTLE FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb [to shrub, soft-wooded tree], hairs stinging and not [glabrous]; monoecious or dioecious; wind-pollinated. Leaf: alternate or opposite, generally stipuled, petioled, blade often with translucent, raised dots due to crystals in epidermal cells. Inflorescence: axillary, 1-flowered or head-, raceme-, or panicle-like. Flower: generally unisexual, small, +- green; sepals generally 4--5, free to fused; petals 0. Staminate Flower: stamens generally 4--5, opposite sepals, incurved in bud, reflexing suddenly when flower opens. Pistillate Flower: ovary 1, superior, chamber 1, style 0--1, stigma 1, generally hair-tufted. Fruit: generally achene.
Genera In Family: 50 genera, 700 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Boehmeria, ramie; Pilea, clearweed).
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Dennis W. Woodland
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: UrticaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: STINGING NETTLE
Habit: Annual, perennial herb [to shrub], weak, stinging hairs 0 or few to many; monoecious or dioecious. Stem: branched or not, erect, spreading, or decumbent. Leaf: opposite, lanceolate to cordate, toothed, prominently 3--5-veined from base; crystals round to elongate. Inflorescence: head-, raceme-, or panicle-like. Staminate Flower: sepals 4, +- free, green, sharp-bristly; stamens 4. Pistillate Flower: sepals 4, +- free, outer 2 < inner 2. Fruit: lenticular to deltate, enclosed by 2 inner sepals.
Species In Genus: +- 45 species: especially temperate. Etymology: (Latin: to burn, from stinging hairs)
Species: Urtica dioicaView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb 5--30 dm, from rhizome, +- erect, stinging hairs few to many, non-stinging 0 to dense, generally shorter. Leaf: blade 6--20 cm, narrow-lanceolate to wide-ovate, base tapered to cordate. Inflorescence: spike-, raceme-, or panicle-like, 1--7 cm, generally > petiole, of staminate or pistillate flowers. Fruit: ovate.
Note: Urtica dioica subsp. dioica dioecious, native to Eurasia; naturalized in North America; report from California in FNANM based on an unconfirmed collection.

Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis (Aiton) Selander
NATIVE
Habit: Generally monoecious. Stem: 10--25 dm. Leaf: generally wide-ovate. Chromosomes: 2n=26,52.
Ecology: Moist or riparian areas, willow scrub; Elevation: < 245 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, KR (Trinity Alps), deltaic SnJV, n CCo; Distribution Outside California: United States, Canada. Flowering Time: Mar--Oct
Synonyms: Urtica gracilis Aiton; Urtica californica Greene; Urtica lyallii S. Watson
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Dennis W. Woodland
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botanical illustration including Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis

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Citation for this treatment: Robert E. Preston & Dennis W. Woodland 2016. Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=53302, accessed on May 28, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 28, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis:
NCo, KR (Trinity Alps), deltaic SnJV, n CCo;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.