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Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis
AMERICAN STINGING NETTLE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: UrticaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: NETTLE FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb [to shrub, soft-wooded tree], hairs stinging and not [glabrous]; monoecious or dioecious; wind-pollinated. Leaf: alternate or opposite, generally stipuled, petioled, blade often with translucent, raised dots due to crystals in epidermal cells. Inflorescence: axillary, 1-flowered or head-, raceme-, or panicle-like. Flower: generally unisexual, small, +- green; sepals generally 4--5, free to fused; petals 0. Staminate Flower: stamens generally 4--5, opposite sepals, incurved in bud, reflexing suddenly when flower opens. Pistillate Flower: ovary 1, superior, chamber 1, style 0--1, stigma 1, generally hair-tufted. Fruit: generally achene.
Genera In Family: 50 genera, 700 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Boehmeria, ramie; Pilea, clearweed).
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Dennis W. Woodland
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: UrticaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: STINGING NETTLE
Habit: Annual, perennial herb [to shrub], weak, stinging hairs 0 or few to many; monoecious or dioecious. Stem: branched or not, erect, spreading, or decumbent. Leaf: opposite, lanceolate to cordate, toothed, prominently 3--5-veined from base; crystals round to elongate. Inflorescence: head-, raceme-, or panicle-like. Staminate Flower: sepals 4, +- free, green, sharp-bristly; stamens 4. Pistillate Flower: sepals 4, +- free, outer 2 < inner 2. Fruit: lenticular to deltate, enclosed by 2 inner sepals.
Species In Genus: +- 45 species: especially temperate. Etymology: (Latin: to burn, from stinging hairs)
Species: Urtica dioicaView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb 5--30 dm, from rhizome, +- erect, stinging hairs few to many, non-stinging 0 to dense, generally shorter. Leaf: blade 6--20 cm, narrow-lanceolate to wide-ovate, base tapered to cordate. Inflorescence: spike-, raceme-, or panicle-like, 1--7 cm, generally > petiole, of staminate or pistillate flowers. Fruit: ovate.
Note: Urtica dioica subsp. dioica dioecious, native to Eurasia; naturalized in North America; report from California in FNANM based on an unconfirmed collection.

Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis (Aiton) Selander
NATIVE
Habit: Generally monoecious. Stem: 10--25 dm. Leaf: generally wide-ovate. Chromosomes: 2n=26,52.
Ecology: Moist or riparian areas, willow scrub; Elevation: < 245 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, KR (Trinity Alps), deltaic SnJV, n CCo; Distribution Outside California: United States, Canada. Flowering Time: Mar--Oct
Synonyms: Urtica gracilis Aiton; Urtica californica Greene; Urtica lyallii S. Watson
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Dennis W. Woodland
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botanical illustration including Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis

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Citation for this treatment: Robert E. Preston & Dennis W. Woodland 2016. Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=53302, accessed on February 08, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 08, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis:
NCo, KR (Trinity Alps), deltaic SnJV, n CCo;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.