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Pinus balfouriana subsp. austrina


Higher Taxonomy
Family: PinaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: PINE FAMILY
Habit: Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious. Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing +- 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several years. Pollen Cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous. Seed Cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract. Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
Genera In Family: 10 genera, 193 species: generally northern hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber.
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller, Nancy J. Vivrette, & James R. Griffin, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: PinusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: PINE
Stem: young crown conic, mature often rounded or flat; branches +- whorled in young plants; young bark smooth, mature furrowed; bud +- conic, generally resinous. Leaf: generally 2.5--35 cm, generally sessile, in bundles of (1)2--5; bundles 1 in axils of alternate, awl-like bracts, base in a sometimes deciduous, scaly sheath of bracts, generally persistent several years. Seed Cone: often whorled, generally maturing, opening 2nd year, persistent on stem or not; stalk 0 or < 16 cm; bract included, fused to scale at least basally, minute; scale tip reflexed, elongated 3--7 cm or often with a rounded or angled, often prickled knob < 3 cm. Seed: coat hard, woody or not. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Species In Genus: 94 species: northern hemisphere. Etymology: (Latin: pine) Note: Pinus pinea L., stone pine (leaves 2 per bundle, 10--30 cm; seed cone 8--15 cm, maturing in 3 years) cultivated in Europe for over 6000 years for edible seeds (pine nuts), reportedly naturalized in SnFrB, northern ChI.
Unabridged Note: Morphological, genetic study of relationships among Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus ponderosa, and Pinus washoensis indicates that the taxa should be classified as 2 species, Pinus jeffreyi and Pinus ponderosa, and that the latter comprises three varieties: Pinus ponderosa var. pacifica (new taxon), Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa, and Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis (new combination).
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette
Unabridged Reference: Millar & Critchfield 1988 Madroño 35:39--53
Species: Pinus balfourianaView Description 

Common Name: FOXTAIL PINE
Stem: trunk generally 1, < 22 m, < 2.6 m wide; mature crown branches short, thick. Leaf: 5 per bundle, 1.5--4 cm, curved, stiff, +- blue- or yellow-green, adaxially +- white, tip acute, sharp to touch; sheath deciduous. Seed Cone: pendent, 6--19 cm, ovoid; stalk 7--16 mm; scale tip knob angled, prickle <= 1 mm. Seed: < wing.

Pinus balfouriana subsp. austrina R.J. Mastrog. & J.D. Mastrog.
NATIVE
Stem: mature bark thick, red-brown, in +- squared plates. Leaf: +- yellow-green, persisting < 30 years.
Ecology: Subalpine forest; Elevation: 2700--3700 m. Bioregional Distribution: s SNH. Note: In some ways more like Pinus longaeva than Pinus balfouriana subsp. balfouriana.
Jepson eFlora Author: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette
Unabridged Reference: Millar & Critchfield 1988 Madroño 35:39--53
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Citation for this treatment: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette 2012, Pinus balfouriana subsp. austrina, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=52298, accessed on June 17, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on June 17, 2019.

Pinus balfouriana subsp. austrina
click for enlargement
© 2003 Christopher L. Christie
Pinus balfouriana subsp. austrina
click for enlargement
© 2003 Christopher L. Christie
Pinus balfouriana subsp. austrina
click for enlargement
© 2011 James M. Andre
Pinus balfouriana subsp. austrina
click for enlargement
© 2011 James M. Andre
Pinus balfouriana subsp. austrina
click for enlargement
© 2003 Christopher L. Christie
Pinus balfouriana subsp. austrina
click for enlargement
© 2003 Christopher L. Christie

More photos of Pinus balfouriana subsp. austrina in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Pinus balfouriana subsp. austrina:
s SNH.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.