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Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrobanchaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to +- fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1--2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0--5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1--2, placentas 2--4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally +- ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2--4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
Genera In Family: 99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. Note: High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: OrthocarpusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, green. Leaf: alternate, sessile, entire to 3-lobed. Inflorescence: spike; bracts generally distinct from leaves, 1 per flower, entire to 5-lobed, tips generally colored. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, deepest sinus adaxial; corolla club-shaped, upper lip folded lengthwise, tip rounded, closed, opening directed downward forming a hood enclosing anthers and style, lower lip shorter, +- 3-pouched, (0)3-toothed; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; style, stigma slender. Fruit: generally +- notched. Seed: generally 8--15, often +- curved, +- keeled, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting.
Species In Genus: 9 species: western North America. Etymology: (Greek: straight fruit) Note: Close to Cordylanthus; other species formerly placed here are Castilleja (owl's-clovers) or Triphysaria (Johnny-tuck).
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard
Species: Orthocarpus cuspidatusView Description 

Habit: Plant 10--40 cm, puberulent to scabrous, sparsely glandular, becoming +- purple-tinged. Stem: simple to much-branched, generally slender. Leaf: 10--50 mm, +- lanceolate; proximal entire, distal with 3 deep, linear lobes. Inflorescence: 2--10 cm, dense; bracts differing abruptly from distal leaves, 10--20 mm, +- ovate, +- purple-pink on distal 1/3 of distal-most bracts, with 2 narrow, +- basal lobes, central lobe 7--15 mm wide, tip abruptly pointed. Flower: calyx 7--10 mm, divided 1/2 abaxially, 2/3 adaxially, 1/4 on sides; corolla 9--25 mm, exserted or not, lips +- purple-pink, densely puberulent, beak straight, without cylindric, hooked tip, 3--8 mm, 0--4 mm > lower lip, lower lip +- pouched, teeth 1--2 mm, triangular, densely puberulent; stigma well included. Fruit: 6--8 mm. Seed: dark brown. Chromosomes: 2n=28.

Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii (Eastw.) T.I. Chuang & Heckard
Flower: corolla 14--18 mm, exserted, beak 5--6 mm, 0--1 mm > lower lip, pouches +- 3 mm deep; upper anther sac +- 1.3 mm.
Ecology: Open, grassy to rocky slopes; Elevation: 1200--2300 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoRH, CaR, n SNH (Plumas Co.); Distribution Outside California: southwestern Oregon. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug Note: Intergrades with Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. cuspidatus.
Synonyms: Orthocarpus copelandii Eastw.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard
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botanical illustration including Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii


Citation for this treatment: Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard 2017. Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 25, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 25, 2017.

Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii
click for enlargement
© 1993 Gary A. Monroe
Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii
click for enlargement
© 1993 Gary A. Monroe
Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii
click for enlargement
© 2002 California Academy of Sciences

More photos of Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii:
KR, NCoRH, CaR, n SNH (Plumas Co.);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.