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Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrobanchaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to +- fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1--2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0--5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1--2, placentas 2--4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally +- ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2--4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
Genera In Family: 99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. Note: High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: OrthocarpusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, green. Leaf: alternate, sessile, entire to 3-lobed. Inflorescence: spike; bracts generally distinct from leaves, 1 per flower, entire to 5-lobed, tips generally colored. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, deepest sinus adaxial; corolla club-shaped, upper lip folded lengthwise, tip rounded, closed, opening directed downward forming a hood enclosing anthers and style, lower lip shorter, +- 3-pouched, (0)3-toothed; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; style, stigma slender. Fruit: generally +- notched. Seed: generally 8--15, often +- curved, +- keeled, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting.
Species In Genus: 9 species: western North America. Etymology: (Greek: straight fruit) Note: Close to Cordylanthus; other species formerly placed here are Castilleja (owl's-clovers) or Triphysaria (Johnny-tuck).
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard
Species: Orthocarpus cuspidatusView Description 

Habit: Plant 10--40 cm, puberulent to scabrous, sparsely glandular, becoming +- purple-tinged. Stem: simple to much-branched, generally slender. Leaf: 10--50 mm, +- lanceolate; proximal entire, distal with 3 deep, linear lobes. Inflorescence: 2--10 cm, dense; bracts differing abruptly from distal leaves, 10--20 mm, +- ovate, +- purple-pink on distal 1/3 of distal-most bracts, with 2 narrow, +- basal lobes, central lobe 7--15 mm wide, tip abruptly pointed. Flower: calyx 7--10 mm, divided 1/2 abaxially, 2/3 adaxially, 1/4 on sides; corolla 9--25 mm, exserted or not, lips +- purple-pink, densely puberulent, beak straight, without cylindric, hooked tip, 3--8 mm, 0--4 mm > lower lip, lower lip +- pouched, teeth 1--2 mm, triangular, densely puberulent; stigma well included. Fruit: 6--8 mm. Seed: dark brown. Chromosomes: 2n=28.

Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii (Eastw.) T.I. Chuang & Heckard
Flower: corolla 14--18 mm, exserted, beak 5--6 mm, 0--1 mm > lower lip, pouches +- 3 mm deep; upper anther sac +- 1.3 mm.
Ecology: Open, grassy to rocky slopes; Elevation: 1200--2300 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoRH, CaR, n SNH (Plumas Co.); Distribution Outside California: southwestern Oregon. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug Note: Intergrades with Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. cuspidatus.
Synonyms: Orthocarpus copelandii Eastw.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard
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botanical illustration including Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii


Citation for this treatment: Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard 2016. Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 04, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 04, 2016.

Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii
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© 1993 Gary A. Monroe
Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii
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© 2014 Steve Matson
Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii
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© 2010 California Academy of Sciences
Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii
click for enlargement
© 2014 Steve Matson
Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii
click for enlargement
© 2014 Steve Matson
Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii
click for enlargement
© 2002 California Academy of Sciences

More photos of Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii:
KR, NCoRH, CaR, n SNH (Plumas Co.);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.