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Vascular Plants of California
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Hordeum murinum subsp. murinum


Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: HordeumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BARLEY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, cespitose, occasionally from short rhizomes. Stem: decumbent to erect, generally abruptly bent at base; nodes glabrous or pubescent. Leaf: sheath glabrous or hairy; ligules translucent; auricles present or 0; blade flat or +- rolled. Inflorescence: spike-like, dense; axis breaking apart at nodes at maturity (except in Hordeum vulgare); spikelets 2-ranked, strongly overlapping, 3 per node (central + 2 lateral). Central Spikelet: bisexual, generally sessile; with 1 stalked or sessile floret; glumes awn-like, generally > floret; lemma awned.Lateral Spikelet: sterile or staminate (bisexual in Hordeum vulgare), generally short-stalked; floret 1, sessile; glumes awn-like, > floret; lemma generally awned.
Species In Genus: 32 species: temperate worldwide except Australia. Etymology: (Latin: ancient name for barley) Note: As treated here, including Critesion. Hybridizes with Elymus to produce ×Elyhordeum species. Source of edible grains, sugar, ornamental, and weeds; enzymes from sprouts used in beer-making. Lemma or floret measurements do not include awns. Hordeum pusillum Nutt. has been reported for Ventura and San Diego cos., but it does not appear to be naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
Reference: von Bothmer et al. 2007 FNANM 24:241--252
Unabridged Reference: Baum & Bailey 1990 Canad J Bot 68:2433--2442
Species: Hordeum murinumView Description 


Common Name: WALL BARLEY
Habit: Annual. Stem: 1.5--11 dm, erect, sometimes +- prostrate; nodes glabrous. Leaf: basal sheaths glabrous to +- hairy, auricles 1--4(8) mm; blade <= 28 cm, 2--5 mm wide, glabrous, scabrous or sparsely long-hairy. Inflorescence: 3--12 cm, 7--16 mm wide, green to glaucous, occasionally +- red or brown at maturity; axis breaking apart at maturity. Central Spikelet: glumes 11--25 mm, margins generally ciliate, base flat; lemma 8--14 mm, awn 20--40 mm.Lateral Spikelet: staminate; glumes 11--35 cm, margins ciliate, base flat; lemma 8--15 mm, awn 20--50 mm.Chromosomes: 2n=14,28,42.

Hordeum murinum L. subsp. murinum
NATURALIZED
Habit: Winter annual. Stem: 3--6 dm. Inflorescence: green. Central Spikelet: stalk 0--0.5 mm; lemma generally = those of lateral florets; lemma awn +- < awn of lateral floret.Lateral Spikelet: palea scabrous to glabrous.Chromosomes: 2n=28.
Ecology: Moist, generally disturbed sites; Elevation: 80--1000 m. Bioregional Distribution: CaRH, Teh, ScV, CW, DSon; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Colorado, Pennsylvania, Maryland. Flowering Time: Feb--May
Jepson eFlora Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
Reference: von Bothmer et al. 2007 FNANM 24:241--252
Unabridged Reference: Baum & Bailey 1990 Canad J Bot 68:2433--2442
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Citation for this treatment: James P. Smith, Jr. 2012, Hordeum murinum subsp. murinum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=50972, accessed on August 25, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on August 25, 2019.

No expert verified images found for Hordeum murinum subsp. murinum.



Geographic subdivisions for Hordeum murinum subsp. murinum:
CaRH, Teh, ScV, CW, DSon
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map of distribution 1
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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
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Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.