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Vascular Plants of California
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Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: HordeumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BARLEY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, cespitose, occasionally from short rhizomes. Stem: decumbent to erect, generally abruptly bent at base; nodes glabrous or pubescent. Leaf: sheath glabrous or hairy; ligules translucent; auricles present or 0; blade flat or +- rolled. Inflorescence: spike-like, dense; axis breaking apart at nodes at maturity (except in Hordeum vulgare); spikelets 2-ranked, strongly overlapping, 3 per node (central + 2 lateral). Central Spikelet: bisexual, generally sessile; with 1 stalked or sessile floret; glumes awn-like, generally > floret; lemma awned.Lateral Spikelet: sterile or staminate (bisexual in Hordeum vulgare), generally short-stalked; floret 1, sessile; glumes awn-like, > floret; lemma generally awned.
Species In Genus: 32 species: temperate worldwide except Australia. Etymology: (Latin: ancient name for barley) Note: As treated here, including Critesion. Hybridizes with Elymus to produce ×Elyhordeum species. Source of edible grains, sugar, ornamental, and weeds; enzymes from sprouts used in beer-making. Lemma or floret measurements do not include awns. Hordeum pusillum Nutt. has been reported for Ventura and San Diego cos., but it does not appear to be naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
Reference: von Bothmer et al. 2007 FNANM 24:241--252
Unabridged Reference: Baum & Bailey 1990 Canad J Bot 68:2433--2442
Species: Hordeum murinumView Description 

Common Name: WALL BARLEY
Habit: Annual. Stem: 1.5--11 dm, erect, sometimes +- prostrate; nodes glabrous. Leaf: basal sheaths glabrous to +- hairy, auricles 1--4(8) mm; blade <= 28 cm, 2--5 mm wide, glabrous, scabrous or sparsely long-hairy. Inflorescence: 3--12 cm, 7--16 mm wide, green to glaucous, occasionally +- red or brown at maturity; axis breaking apart at maturity. Central Spikelet: glumes 11--25 mm, margins generally ciliate, base flat; lemma 8--14 mm, awn 20--40 mm.Lateral Spikelet: staminate; glumes 11--35 cm, margins ciliate, base flat; lemma 8--15 mm, awn 20--50 mm.Chromosomes: 2n=14,28,42.

Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum (Steud.) Tzvelev
Habit: Summer annual. Stem: 1.5--4 dm. Inflorescence: green to glaucous, generally brown at maturity. Central Spikelet: stalk 1--2 mm; lemma <= lateral floret lemma; lemma awn < lateral floret awn; anthers < 1/2 those of lateral florets.Lateral Spikelet: palea long-hairy on lower 1/2.Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Ecology: Moist, generally disturbed sites; Elevation: -60--1900 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA (exc KR, CaR, SNE); Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Oklahoma, Alabama, Texas, Mexico. Flowering Time: Mar--Jul
Synonyms: Hordeum glaucum Steud.; Hordeum stebbinsii Covas
Jepson eFlora Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
Reference: von Bothmer et al. 2007 FNANM 24:241--252
Unabridged Reference: Baum & Bailey 1990 Canad J Bot 68:2433--2442
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Botanical illustration including Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum

botanical illustration including Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum


Citation for this treatment: James P. Smith, Jr. 2012, Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on February 23, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on February 23, 2019.

Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum
click for enlargement
© 2009 Barry Rice
Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson

More photos of Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum:
CA (exc KR, CaR, SNE);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.