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Hordeum jubatum subsp. jubatum
FOXTAIL BARLEY, SQUIRRELTAIL BARLEY

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: HordeumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BARLEY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, cespitose, occasionally from short rhizomes. Stem: decumbent to erect, generally abruptly bent at base; nodes glabrous or pubescent. Leaf: sheath glabrous or hairy; ligules translucent; auricles present or 0; blade flat or +- rolled. Inflorescence: spike-like, dense; axis breaking apart at nodes at maturity (except in Hordeum vulgare); spikelets 2-ranked, strongly overlapping, 3 per node (central + 2 lateral). Central Spikelet: bisexual, generally sessile; with 1 stalked or sessile floret; glumes awn-like, generally > floret; lemma awned.Lateral Spikelet: sterile or staminate (bisexual in Hordeum vulgare), generally short-stalked; floret 1, sessile; glumes awn-like, > floret, lemma generally awned.
Species In Genus: 32 species: temperate worldwide except Australia. Etymology: (Latin: ancient name for barley) Note: As treated here, including Critesion. Hybridizes with Elymus to produce ×Elyhordeum species. Source of edible grains, sugar, ornamental, and weeds; enzymes from sprouts used in beer-making. Lemma or floret measurements do not include awns. Hordeum pusillum Nutt. has been reported for Ventura and San Diego cos., but it does not appear to be naturalized.

Hordeum jubatum L. subsp. jubatum
NATIVE
Habit: Annual, perennial herb. Stem: 2--8 dm, bent at base or erect, densely tufted. Leaf: sheath glabrous to hairy, auricles 0; blade to 15 cm, < 5 mm wide, scabrous to short-hairy. Inflorescence: 3--15 cm, white-green to light purple. Central Spikelet: glumes (15)35--85 mm, bristle-like throughout, strongly divergent with age; lemma 4--8.5 mm, glabrous, awn 25--90 mm.Lateral Spikelet: staminate or sterile; glumes 17--80 mm, base not flat; lemma 4--6.5 mm, awn 2--15 mm, divergent.Chromosomes: 2n=28.
Ecology: Roadsides, disturbed areas, meadows, marshes; Elevation: 20--3500 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, eastern United States, Mexico, eastern Siberia. Flowering Time: May--Jul Note: Hybridizes with Elymus multisetus to yield ×Elyhordeum californicum (Bowden) Barkworth and with Elymus trachycaulus to yield ×Elyhordeum macounii (Vasey) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey. Awns can cause mechanical injury to animals. Another subsp. occurs in the northern Rocky Mountains.
Synonyms: Hordeum jubatum var. caespitosum (Scribn.) Hitchc.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
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Citation for this treatment: James P. Smith, Jr. 2016. Hordeum jubatum subsp. jubatum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=50967, accessed on September 28, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on September 28, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Hordeum jubatum subsp. jubatum:
CA;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.