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Vascular Plants of California
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Clarkia purpurea subsp. quadrivulnera

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OnagraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2--7); petals 4(2--7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
Genera In Family: 22 genera, +- 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). Note: Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: ClarkiaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual < 1.5 m. Stem: prostrate to erect, glabrous, often glaucous, or puberulent (hairs long, spreading). Leaf: pinnately veined; petiole < 4 cm or 0; blade 1--10 cm, linear to elliptic or ovate, entire or shallow-toothed, glabrous or sparsely puberulent. Inflorescence: spike, raceme; bracts leaf-like; axis in bud straight or recurved at tip, in flower +- straight; buds erect or not. Flower: hypanthium obconic to cup-shaped, or long, slender, generally with ring of hairs within; sepals 4, generally fused to tip in bud, reflexed at least at base, staying fused at least at tip, in 4s or 2s, or all coming free; corolla bowl-shaped to rotate, petals 5--60 mm, often lobed or clawed, lavender or pink to dark red, pale yellow, or white, often spotted, flecked, or streaked with red, purple, or white; stamens 8, in 2 like or unlike series, or 4, filaments cylindric to wider distally, subtended by ciliate scales or generally not, anthers attached at base, pollen white or yellow to blue-gray, lavender, or +- red; ovary 4-chambered, glabrous or not, cylindric, fusiform, or wider distally, generally shallowly to deeply 4- or 8-grooved, stigma lobes 4, generally prominent. Fruit: generally capsule, elongate (short, indehiscent, nut-like). Seed: generally many, rarely 1--2, 0.5--2 mm, angled, crested or not, brown, gray, or mottled.
Species In Genus: +- 41 species: western North America, 1 South America. Etymology: (Captain William Clark, 1770--1838, of Lewis & Clark Expedition) Note: Self-fertile; self-pollinated or outcrossed; on herbarium specimens, curvature of inflorescence axis in bud generally reliable, pollen color generally not.
eFlora Treatment Author: Harlan Lewis
Reference: Lewis & Lewis 1955 Univ Calif Publ Bot 20:241--392
Species: Clarkia purpureaView Description 

Stem: decumbent to erect, < 1 m, glabrous, to densely puberulent (some hairs longer), glaucous or not. Leaf: petiole 0--2 mm; blade 1.5--7 cm, linear or narrowly oblanceolate to elliptic or ovate. Inflorescence: axis in bud straight; buds erect. Flower: hypanthium 2--10 mm, not conspicuously veined; sepals staying fused in 2s or all coming free; corolla bowl-shaped, petals fan-shaped, obovate or elliptic, lavender or pale pink to purple or dark wine-red, often with red or purple spot near middle or proximally or distally; stamens 8, anthers alike; ovary 8-grooved, length < 8 × width. Fruit: 1--3 cm; beak 0--2 mm. Chromosomes: n=26.
Note: Subspecies intergrade extensively. Other subspecies to Washington, Arizona, Baja California.
Clarkia purpurea subsp. quadrivulnera (Lindl.) H. Lewis & M. Lewis
Stem: generally erect. Leaf: 1.5--5 cm, generally linear to lanceolate, acute. Inflorescence: generally open. Flower: petals <= 15 mm, generally +- 10 mm, lavender to purple or dark wine-red, often with a purple spot near middle or distally; stigma not exserted beyond anthers.
Ecology: Common. Open, grassy or shrubby places; Elevation: < 1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP. Flowering Time: Apr--Aug Note: Highly variable.
Jepson eFlora Author: Harlan Lewis
Reference: Lewis & Lewis 1955 Univ Calif Publ Bot 20:241--392
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Botanical illustration including Clarkia purpurea subsp. quadrivulnera

botanical illustration including Clarkia purpurea subsp. quadrivulnera


Citation for this treatment: Harlan Lewis 2012, Clarkia purpurea subsp. quadrivulnera, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 13, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 13, 2018.

Clarkia purpurea subsp. quadrivulnera
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© 2016 Steve Matson
Clarkia purpurea subsp. quadrivulnera
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© 2009 Thomas Stoughton
Clarkia purpurea subsp. quadrivulnera
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© 2001 Gary A. Monroe
Clarkia purpurea subsp. quadrivulnera
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Clarkia purpurea subsp. quadrivulnera
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© 2009 Thomas Stoughton
Clarkia purpurea subsp. quadrivulnera
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© 2007 Chris Winchell

More photos of Clarkia purpurea subsp. quadrivulnera in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Clarkia purpurea subsp. quadrivulnera:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.