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Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OnagraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2--7); petals 4(2--7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
Genera In Family: 22 genera, +- 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). Note: Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: CircaeaView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb from tuber-tipped rhizomes or stolons. Leaf: opposite, petioled, entire to toothed; stipules present, occasionally deciduous. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle. Flower: hypanthium present; biradial; sepals 2, often reflexed, deciduous after flower (along with other flower parts); petals 2, erect; stamens 2, pollen yellow, grains shed singly; ovary chambers 1--2, stigmas maturing before anthers. Fruit: indehiscent, generally club-shaped, bur-like with hooked hairs. Seed: 1 per chamber, adhering to inner fruit wall.
Species In Genus: 8 species: northern hemisphere. Etymology: (Greek: Circe, the enchantress) Note: Often self-pollinated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Peter C. Hoch

Circaea alpina L. subsp. pacifica (Asch. & Magnus) P.H. Raven
Stem: 1--5 dm, simple, erect, slender, cylindric, generally densely strigose. Leaf: 3--11 cm, ovate to +- round, glabrous or +- hairy; base round to +- cordate; tip acute; petiole 1.5--5 cm. Inflorescence: raceme, erect, densely strigose and glandular; pedicel in fruit 2--5 mm. Flower: hypanthium 0.3--0.5 mm; sepals 1--2 mm, white, reflexed; petals 1--1.5 mm, white; stamens +- = pistil; stigma 2-lobed. Fruit: +- 2 mm, 1-chambered. Chromosomes: 2n=22.
Ecology: Cool, moist, conifer forest; Elevation: < 2700 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, n SNF, SNH, SnFrB, SnBr, Wrn; Distribution Outside California: to western Canada, Montana, New Mexico. Flowering Time: May--Aug
eFlora Treatment Author: Peter C. Hoch
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botanical illustration including Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica


Citation for this treatment: Peter C. Hoch 2017. Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 25, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 25, 2017.

Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica
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© 2009 Barry Breckling
Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica
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© 2008 Keir Morse
Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica
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© 2001 Gary A. Monroe
Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica
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© 2003 Steve Matson
Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica
click for enlargement
© 2003 Steve Matson

More photos of Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica:
NW, CaR, n SNF, SNH, SnFrB, SnBr, Wrn;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.