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Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OnagraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2--7); petals 4(2--7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
Genera In Family: 22 genera, +- 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). Note: Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: CircaeaView Description 

Common Name: ENCHANTER'S NIGHTSHADE
Habit: Perennial herb from tuber-tipped rhizomes or stolons. Leaf: opposite, petioled, entire to toothed; stipules present, occasionally deciduous. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle. Flower: hypanthium present; biradial; sepals 2, often reflexed, deciduous after flower (along with other flower parts); petals 2, erect; stamens 2, pollen yellow, grains shed singly; ovary chambers 1--2, stigmas maturing before anthers. Fruit: indehiscent, generally club-shaped, bur-like with hooked hairs. Seed: 1 per chamber, adhering to inner fruit wall.
Species In Genus: 8 species: northern hemisphere. Etymology: (Greek: Circe, the enchantress) Note: Often self-pollinated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Peter C. Hoch

Circaea alpina L. subsp. pacifica (Asch. & Magnus) P.H. Raven
NATIVE
Stem: 1--5 dm, simple, erect, slender, cylindric, generally densely strigose. Leaf: 3--11 cm, ovate to +- round, glabrous or +- hairy; base round to +- cordate; tip acute; petiole 1.5--5 cm. Inflorescence: raceme, erect, densely strigose and glandular; pedicel in fruit 2--5 mm. Flower: hypanthium 0.3--0.5 mm; sepals 1--2 mm, white, reflexed; petals 1--1.5 mm, white; stamens +- = pistil; stigma 2-lobed. Fruit: +- 2 mm, 1-chambered. Chromosomes: 2n=22.
Ecology: Cool, moist, conifer forest; Elevation: < 2700 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, n SNF, SNH, SnFrB, SnBr, Wrn; Distribution Outside California: to western Canada, Montana, New Mexico. Flowering Time: May--Aug
eFlora Treatment Author: Peter C. Hoch
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Citation for this treatment: Peter C. Hoch 2016. Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=49874, accessed on May 01, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 01, 2016.


Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica
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© 2003 Steve Matson
Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica
click for enlargement
© 2003 Steve Matson
Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse
Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica
click for enlargement
© 2001 Gary A. Monroe
Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica
click for enlargement
© 2003 Steve Matson
Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson

More photos of Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Circaea alpina subsp. pacifica:
NW, CaR, n SNF, SNH, SnFrB, SnBr, Wrn;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.