Common Name: BROOMRAPE FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to +- fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1--2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0--5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1--2, placentas 2--4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally +- ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2--4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
Genera In Family: 99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. Note: High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Common Name: PAINTBRUSH, OWL'S-CLOVER
Habit: Annual to subshrub, green. Leaf: sessile, entire to dissected. Inflorescence: spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, mature tips generally cream to red or green. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, colored like bract tips; corolla upper 2 lip lobes fused, beak-like, tip open, lower lip reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted. Fruit: +- asymmetric. Seed: generally +- brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls ladder-like or not.
Species In Genus: +- 200 species: especially western North America. Etymology: (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist, 1744--1793) Note: Hybridization and polyploidy common. Biologically consistent taxa difficult to define. Castilleja chrymactis Pennell not in California, sole (1947) record a misidentified, incomplete specimen.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard
Common Name: JOHNNY-NIP
Habit: Annual 10--30 cm, generally much-branched, decumbent, puberulent. Leaf: 10--50 mm, > 3 mm wide, lanceolate to oblong; lobes 0--5. Inflorescence: 3--12 cm, 3--4 cm wide, often dense; bracts 15--25 mm, oblong to ovate, tipped yellow (cream) to rose-purple, lobes 3--9, central lobe generally rounded. Flower: calyx 12--20 mm, divided 1/2 abaxially and on sides, 2/3 adaxially, lobes linear; corolla 14--25 mm, pale yellow or rose-purple, beak 4--5 mm, straight, puberulent, lower lip 3--4 mm, pouches 3--7 mm wide, 1--2 mm deep, generally purple-dotted at base; filaments glabrous; stigma generally +- exserted. Fruit: 8--12 mm. Seed: coat shallowly netted, tight-fitting. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Note: Highly variable and difficult; many local, +- ecological forms; needs study.